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Useful tools for computers, websites and the internet

Note: I haven't used all of these myself. As far as I'm aware, they're all either free or open source.

The range of tools is changing all the time, so this list (from 2012) is undoubtedly already out of date. Let me know of any corrections or additions.

See also the list at


Protects your computer from viruses

Audio editing

Edits audio files


Saves a copy of your files


Web-based diary, web log - Good for your website's news section



Keep track of your appointments

Collaborative writing

Communities of practice

Content management systems (CMS)

For complex content. Allows you to upload content in different categories

Desktop publishing

Desktop search

Searches the contents of your computer

Digital libraries



File compression

File storage and sharing


Prevents online nasties from getting onto your computer

Free software

FTP (uploading) software

Graphics editing

Image sharing

Instant messenger

Sends messages to your friends

Macro maker

Automates keystrokes and mouse clicks

Music player

Manages and plays music

Office productivity

Suites containing a word processor, spreadsheet, presentation manager, etc (like Microsoft Office)

Online tutorials

Password manager

Manages your passwords and keeps them safe

PDF conversion

PDF reader

Remote access

Lets you access your home computer from somewhere else

Search engines

Social bookmarking

Social networking

Survey tools

Online survey tools and polls


To do list manager

Reminds you what you still have to do

Web address redirection

Shortens long web addresses

Web design software


Let many people contribute to a single website

Video sharing

]]> (Administrator) Development communication Mon, 10 Feb 2014 12:56:14 +0000
Livres sur la communication pour le développement en français

List compiled by Paul Mundy, Anne W. van den Ban, Michelle Jeanguyot and Jacques Sultan

  • ADRAO. 1996. Elaboration de matériel didactique en matière d’agriculture: Un manuel de cours. ADRAO, Bouaké.
  • Agnola, M. 1996. Passeport pour le multimedia. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 176 pp. ISBN 2859001174.
  • Bachmann, P. 1996. Communiquer avec la presse écrite et auditoire. Metier Journaliste - Victoires-Editions, Paris.  ISBN 2908056771. Role of the press in a communication strategy; things journalists look for; tools for communicating with the press; dealing with press coverage.
  • Bachmann P. Schultz M. Concevoir et  produire un audiov. entr. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 136 pp. ISBN 2859001018.
  • Banque Mondiale. 1996. Systèmes d’information sur l’environnement en Afrique sub saharienne: Investir dans le future. Findings 24, World Bank, Washington, DC.
  • Batifoulier C. Le Sidaner O. 2004. Organiser sa documentation et rechercher l'information. Metier Journaliste, Paris. 104 pp. ISBN 290805678X
  • Baudouin J-C. Clemi. Journal video au college & au lycee. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 128 pp. ISBN 2859000747
  • Beau, Christophe and Anne Claire Idoux. 1998. Savoirs paysans et savoirs scientifiques. Editions Charles Léopold Meyer.
  • Benard K. Et Divers. Sources de l'information science et technologique. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 448 pp. ISBN 285900078X
  • Berqué, Pascal, Evelyne Foy, and Bruce Girard. 1995. La passion radio. Editions Syros.
  • Besse B. Desormeaux D. Construire le reportage televise. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 184 pp. ISBN 2908056445
  • Besse B. Desormeaux D. Television news reporting. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris.  pp. ISBN 2908056674
  • Bolliger, Ernst. 1991. Vulgarisation agricole: Un guide pour vulgarisatrices et vulgarisateurs. SKAT, St Gallen, Switzerland. French translation of Agricultural extension: Guidelines for extension workers in rural areas.
  • Boucher J-M. Palaux V. Vente au numero. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 128 pp. ISBN 285900095X
  • Brauman R. Backmann R. Les medias et l'humanitaire. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 176 pp. ISBN 2859001255
  • Brosseau, Jean Michel and Jacques Soncin. 1999. Créer, gérer et animer une radio. Collection Guides Pratiques, Editions GRET, Paris. ISBN 2-86844-096-7. Manual on how to develop and manage a local radio station in the developing world.
  • Brouker, J. de. 1995. Pratique de l’information et écriture journalistique. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 258 pp. ISBN 2859001204.
  • CENTOR IDEP. 1999. Techniques d’exposé et de présentation en public. Centor Idep, Paris.
  • CFPJ Editions. Abrege du droit de la presse. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 136 pp. ISBN 2859000941
  • CFPJ Editions. Guide du correspondant local. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 48 pp. ISBN 2859000062
  • CFPJ Editions. 1987. Guide de la rédaction. Centre de Formation et de Perfectionnement des Journalistes, Paris. ISBN 2-85900-008-9. Writing for an audience; editing principles; structure of an article; journalistic styles; preparing copy; journalists’ equipment.
  • CFPJ Editions. 1994. Mieux connaître l’information audiovisuelle. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 152 pp. ISBN 2859001034.
  • CFPJ. 2000. Abrégé du code typographique à l’usage de la presse. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 104 pp. ISBN 2908056267.
  • CFPJ Editions. Les yeux du quotidien. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 72 pp. ISBN 2859000119
  • Chappe J.M. 2004. L'infographie de presse. Metier Journaliste - Victoires-Editions, Paris.  pp. ISBN 2908056798
  • Clemi. La radio média des jeunes: En milieu scolaire et associatif. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 160 pp. ISBN 290805650X
  • Colignon J-P. Decourt. Accords parfaits. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 104 pp. ISBN 2859001379
  • Courrier S. Internet pour les journalistes. Metier Journaliste - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 474 pp. ISBN 2908056763
  • CRDI. 1995. La communication participative pour le développement: Un agenda Ouest Africain Editions CRDI. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa.
  • CTA. 1994. Atelier sur les réseaux de documentation agricole en Afrique: Rapport de synthèse. Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), Wageningen, Netherlands.
  • CTA. 1995 and 1996. La vulgarisation agricole en Afrique. (2 vols) Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), Wageningen, Netherlands.
  • CTA. 1995. La radio au service du monde rural des pays ACP. Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), Wageningen, Netherlands.
  • CTA. 1996. Le rôle de l’information pour le développement rural des pays ACP: Bilan et prospectives. Séminaire international. Montpellier, Juin 1995. Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), Wageningen, Netherlands.
  • Darroy, Christian. 1990. Pour mieux communiquer avec la presse. Centre de Formation et de Perfectionnement des Journalistes, Paris.
  • de Coquereaumont, Aliette and Inades-Formation. Techniques d’impression à coût modéré. GRET, Paris. ISBN 2-86844-011-8. Guide for non-specialists on low-cost printing techniques, and on how to work with printers.
  • Defois G. Tincq H. Les medias et l'eglise. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 160 pp. ISBN 2859001387
  • Diop B., A. Faye, Y. Sylla and A. T. Guèye. 1990. L’impact des journaux en langue nationale sur les populations sénégalaises. Association des chercheurs sénégalais, Dakar.
  • Dubois S. Zbinden M. Guide des sources d'information 1996. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 464 pp. ISBN 2859001247
  • Esposito F. Les liaisons dangereuses. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 96 pp. ISBN 2859001042
  • FAO. 1991. Les mille et un mondes: Manuel de radio rurale. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  • FAO. 1993. Guide méthodologique des interventions dans la communication sociale en nutrition. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. ISBN 925203367X.
  • FAO. 1994. La communication, pour un développement à dimension humaine. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  • FAO. 1996. Approche participative, communication et gestion des ressources forestières en Afrique sahélienne. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  • FAO. 1996. Atelier international pour le développement de la radio rurale en Afrique. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  • FAO. 1996. Développement de la radio rurale en Afrique: Déclaration et plan d’action, Ouagadougou, juin 1996. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  • FAO. 1996. L’informatique et la foresterie. Revue Unasylva 189. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  • FAO. 1998. Comment concevoir et réaliser des supports de communication de proximité. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  • FAO. 1998. Internet et le développement agricole et rural: Une approche intégrée. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  • FAO. 1998. République centrafricaine: Politique nationale de communication pour le développement. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  • FAO. 1999. La communication pour le développement: Etude de cas N° 16: Le Centre de services de production audiovisuelle (CESPA) au Mali. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  • FAO. 1999: La vidéo: Manuel à l’usage des responsables de la communication, de l’animation, de la formation et de la vulgarisation. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  • FAO, CESPA and PNUD. 1999. Manuel de communication pour le développement. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  • Florio, René. 1975. Initiation à la pratique du journalisme. École supérieure de journalisme, Lille. Choosing a topic and title, determining the style; planning the story; design and photos; getting published.
  • Fra, Daniel and Eyoum Ngangué Gérer. 1999. Créer et animer une publication. Collection Guides Pratiques, Editions GRET, Paris.
  • Friedman M. Libertes et responsabilites journal. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 80 pp. ISBN 2859000240
  • Garvey, Daniel E. and William L. Rivers. 1984. L’information radiotélévisée. Nouveaux Horizons.
  • Giroux, C., M. Jeanguyot, and C. Tricoit. 1991. Manuel d’édition agronomique. CIRAD, Paris, and ICRISAT, Patancheru, India. ISBN 2-87614-046-2. Style and writing guide for scientific authors, editors and translators.
  • Griselin, Madeleine, Chantal Carpentier, Joëlle Maïllardet, and Serge Ormaux. 1992. Guide de la communication écrite: Savoir rédiger, illustrer et présenter rapports, dossiers, articles, mémoires et theses. Dunod, Paris. ISBN 2-10-001445-5. Chapters cover the tools used in writing, the words, illustrations, presentation, typography, editing and production of publications.
  • Gravend J. Le journal municipal. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 120 pp. ISBN 2859000437
  • Guery L. Dictionnaire des regles typographiques. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 288 pp. ISBN 2908056275
  • Guery L. Lebedel P. Comment créer et animer une publication. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 128 pp. ISBN 290805633X
  • Guery L. Précis de mise en page. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 168 pp. ISBN 2908056402
  • Guery L. Presse regionale et locale. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 128 pp. ISBN 2859000658
  • Guery L. Visages de la presse. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 258 pp. ISBN 2859001395
  • Guillemoles A. Le journalisme indépendant. Guide à l'usage des pigistes. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 120 pp. ISBN 2908056410
  • Imprimerie Nationale. 1971. Lexique des règles typographiques en usage à l’imprimerie nationale. ISBN 2-11-081075-0. Typographic and style rules in French.
  • INADES and Developing Countries Radio Network. 1998. Répertoire des radios et revues rurales d’Afrique francophone. INADES.
  • Jacquemin M. La protection des sources des journalistes. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 112 pp. ISBN 2908056321
  • Jiho. C'est tout com'. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 128 pp. ISBN 2859001220
  • Jogand, Annie and Pascal Berqué. 1994. L’audiocassette et ses usages: Un outil de communication au service du monde rural. Collection Guides Pratiques, GRET, Paris. ISBN 2-86844-060-6. Practical guide to using audiocassettes for reporting, extension, public awareness and documentation.
  • Jp Colignon. Un point c'est tout ! La ponctuation efficace. Metier Journaliste - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 136 pp. ISBN 2908056801
  • Kaddour H. Pour les adjectifs vous viendrez me. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 104 pp. ISBN 2859001131
  • Kermoal, F. 1994. Mieux connaître ses lecteurs. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 112 pp. ISBN 2859000968.
  • Kessler, P. and J. Paitra. 1996. Médias et l’entreprise. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 160 pp. ISBN 2859001301
  • Kouchner, J. 1994. Radio locale mode d’emploi. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 120 pp. ISBN 2859000593
  • Lambert J. Le journal d'entreprise. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 120 pp. ISBN 2859000585
  • Leclerc H. Theolleyre. Les medias et la justice. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 170 pp. ISBN 2859001263
  • Linard, André, with Bertrand Scirpo. 1998. Droit, déontologie et éthique des medias. GRET, INDE, Coopération et Francophonie, Commission Européenne, ACCT, Paris. ISBN 2-86844-092-4. Manual on relevant, responsible journalism, conforming to legal and ethical constraints.
  • Mangeol A. Portage des journaux a domicile. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 104 pp. ISBN 285900100X
  • Montant H. Commentaires et humeurs. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 88 pp. ISBN 2859000925
  • Moran Y. Photojournalisme. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 276 pp. ISBN 2908056372
  • Mouriquand J. Pratique du documentaire télévisé. Metier Journaliste - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 96 pp. ISBN 2908056755
  • Muret J-P. Muret D. Comprendre la vie municipale: pour mieux en rendre compte. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 152 pp. ISBN 2908056348
  • Olivier, Jean-Pierre and Elisabeth Paquot (eds). 1991. D’un savoir à l’autre: Les agents de développement comme médiateurs. Ministère de la Coopération, Paris. ISBN 2-86844-042-8. Covers the questions: What is local knowledge? How to relate scientific and local knowledge? What is the role of development agents as mediators?
  • Perrat P. Libérer son écriture et enrichir son style. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 256 pp. ISBN 2908056399
  • Péters van Deinse, Sophie. 1992. Les supports d’information dans l’entreprise. Centre de Formation et de Perfectionnement des Journalistes, Paris. ISBN 2-85900-070-4.
  • Deals with various types of information used in organizations: newsletters (internal and external), brochures, press releases, press conferences and inquiries.
  • Ponthieu, Gérard, with Pierre Barrot. 1998. Le métier de journaliste en 30 questions-réponses. Groupe de Recherche et d’Échanges Technologiques, Paris. ISBN 2-86844-094-0. Practical manual for press training in Africa. Thirty questions on how to interest readers and listeners, and on gathering, processing and presenting information.
  • Saguenais, B. 1996. La conférence de presse ou l’art de faire parler les autres. Les Presses de l’Université, Laval.
  • Sauquet, Michel. 1990. Le voisin sait bien des choses: Communication et participation en milieu rural, leçons du cas brésilien. Syros Alternatives, Paris. ISBN 2-86738-566-0. Three separate communication systems exist in rural Brazil: the mass media, the government and other extension services, and local communication among farmers. The first two could learn much by listening to the last.
  • Sorzana Rouault, C. 1996. Prise de parole en public. Metier Journaliste - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 176 pp. ISBN 2908056836 .
  • Spirlet J-P. Arpej. Utiliser la presse au college, lycee. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 128 pp. ISBN 2859000917
  • Tripathi, Bansh R. 1991. Role des supports visuels dans la communication scientifique. Série techniques de communication: cours audiovisuel, module 1. CIPEA, Addis Abeba.
  • Tripathi, Bansh R. 1991. Organisation du message dans les exposés scientifiques. Série techniques de communication: cours audiovisuel, module 2. CIPEA, Addis Abeba.
  • Tripathi, Bansh R. 1991. Techniques de présentation orale des exposés scientifiques. Série techniques de communication: cours audiovisuel, module 3. CIPEA, Addis Abeba.
  • van den Ban, A. W., H. S. Hawkins, J. H. A. M. Brouwers, and C. A. M. Boon. 1994. La vulgarisation rurale en Afrique. Karthala (with CTA).
  • Voirol, Michel. 1997. Guide de la redaction. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 112 pp. ISBN 2908056437
  • Voirol, Michel. 1993. Barbarismes et compagnie. En français dans le texte 1. CFPJ Editions - Victoires-Editions, Paris. 96 pp. ISBN 2859000216. List of common mistakes in French.
]]> (Administrator) Development communication Sun, 09 Feb 2014 19:52:13 +0000
Books on development communication in English

List compiled by Paul Mundy, Anne W. van den Ban, Michelle Jeanguyot and Jacques Sultan.

This list is rather out of date - but it still contains some useful materials. The most valuable references are marked *.

Adult education

  • Hamilton, N. A. 1995. Learning to learn with farmers: A case study of an adult learning extension project conducted in Queensland, Australia 1990–1995. PhD thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands.
  • Knowles, M. The adult learner: A neglected species. Gulf House, Houston.
  • Merriam, S. B. and R. S. Cafarella. 1999. Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco. 2nd ed.
  • Pareek, U. 1982. Education and rural development in Asia. Oxford & IBH, New Delhi.
  • Rogers, A. 1992. Adults learning for development. Cassel, London.

Agricultural extension: Journals

  • Forests, Trees and People Newsletter. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Rural Development Studies, Box 7005, 7750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
  • Indian Journal of Extension Education. India.
  • *Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension. International Journal on Changes in Agricultural Knowledge and Action Systems, PO Box 194, 6700 AD, Wageningen, Netherlands.
  • Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education Satish Verma, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, PO Box 25100, Baton Rouge, LA 70894-5100, USA.
  • *Journal for Farming Systems Research-Extension. G. H. Axinn, Editor, 313 Natural Resources Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1222, USA.
  • Journal of Extension Education. India.
  • *Journal of Extension Systems. ISSN 0970-2989, O. S. Verma, Chief Editor, F-12 Hyderabad Estate, Napean Sea Road, Bombay 400 036, India.
  • Maharastra Journal of Extension Education. India.
  • *Rural Extension Bulletin. University of Reading, ISSN 096 6350.

Agricultural extension: Books

  • Adhikarya, R. 1994. Strategic extension campaign: A participatory-oriented method of agricultural extension: A case-study of FAO’s experiences. FAO, Rome, Italy. Procedures for planning extension programmes for situations in which experts know which changes are desirable for a large proportion of the farmers.
  • Agricultural extension. 1995. Swiss Development Cooperation, Agricultural Service, CH 3003 Bern. A clear analysis of the major decisions that have to be made in donor-supported development projects.
  • *Albrecht, Hartmut, Herbert Bergmann, Georg Diederich, Eberhard Grosser, Volker Hoffmann, Peter Keller, Gerhard Payr and Rolf Sülzer. 1989. Agricultural extension. 2 vols. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), Eschborn, Germany. ISBN 3 88085 364 9 and 3 88085 405 X. Volume 1 covers extension approaches and methods; volume 2 gives case studies and project descriptions.
  • Batten, T. R. 1967. The non-directive approach in group and community work, Oxford University Press, London. This book gives an excellent discussion of the basics of extension methodology based on experiences in Africa.
  • *Benor, D., and M. Baxter. 1984. Training and visit extension. World Bank, Washington, DC.
  • Birkhaeuser, D., R. E. Everson and G. Feder. 1991. The economic impact of agricultural extension. Economic Development and Cultural Change 39: 607-650.
  • *Blackburn, D. J. (ed.). 1994. Extension Handbook: Processes and Practices. Thompson Educational Publishing, Toronto.
  • *Blum, A. 1996. Teaching and learning in agriculture. FAO, Rome.
  • *Bolliger, Ernst, Peter Reinhard and Tonino Zellweger. 1994. Agricultural extension: Guidelines for extension workers in rural areas. SKAT, Swiss Centre for Development Cooperation in Technology and Management, St Gallen, Switzerland. ISBN 3 908001 20 X. Illustrated guide to extension approaches and methods.
  • Buford, J. A., A. G. Bedeian and J. R. Lindner. 1995. Management in extension. Ohio State University Extension, Columbus, Ohio. The only full text on extension management; gives limited attention to changing extension organizations.
  • *Christoplos, I. and U. Nitsch. 1996. Pluralism and the extension agent: Changing concepts and approaches in rural extension. SIDA, Stockholm.
  • CTA 1995 and 1996. Agricultural extension in Africa. (2 vols) Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), Wageningen, Netherlands.
  • Lionberger, H. F. and P. H. Gwin. 1991. Technology transfer: A textbook of successful research extension strategies used to develop agriculture, University of Missouri, Columbus.
  • Macklin, M. 1992. Agricultural extension in India, World Bank Technical Paper 190, Washington, DC.
  • Misra, D. C. 1990. Training and visit system of agricultural extension in India in action. Directorate of Extension, Ministry of Agriculture, New Delhi.
  • *Misra, D. C. 1990. Defining agricultural extension for 1990s. Directorate of Extension, Ministry of Agriculture, 1990.
  • Moris, J. 1991. Extension alternatives in tropical Africa, Occasional Paper 7, Agricultural Administration Unit, ODI, London.
  • Purcell, D. R. and J. R. Anderson. 1997. Agricultural research and extension: Achievements and problems in national systems. World Bank Operations Evaluation Study, Washington, DC.
  • Ravnborg, H. M. 1996. Agricultural research and the peasants: The Tanzanian agricultural knowledge and information system. Centre for Development Research, Gammel Kongevej 5, 1610 Copenhagen, Denmark. Discusses clearly what kind of support farmers need from research to improve their decision-making.
  • Ray, G. L. 1998. Extension communication and management. Naya Prokash, Calcutta. 3rd ed.
  • Rivera, W. M. and S. G. Schram (eds). 1987. Agricultural extension world wide: Issues, practices and emerging priorities. Croom Helm, London.
  • Rivera, William M. and Daniel J. Gustafson. 1991. Agricultural extension: Worldwide institutional evolution and forces for change. Elsevier, Amsterdam. ISBN 0 444 89239 7. Multi-author volume on extension systems in different countries and development projects.
  • Roberts, N.(ed.). 1989. Agricultural extension in Africa. World Bank, Washington, DC. Report of a symposium held in 1984.
  • Saito, K. A. and D. Spurling. 1992. Developing agricultural extension for women farmers, World Bank Discussion Paper 156, Washington, DC.
  • Samanta, R. K. (ed.). 1993. Extension strategy for agricultural development in 21st century. Mittal, New Delhi.
  • Samanta, R. K. and S. K. Arora. 1997. Management of agricultural extension in global perspectives. BRPC (India), New Delhi.
  • *Scarborough, Vanessa, Scott Killough, Debra A. Johnson and John Farrington (eds). 1997. Farmer-led extension: Concepts and practices. Intermediate Technology Publications, London. ISBN 1 85339 417 3. Covers various approaches to farmer-led extension, including farmer-to-farmer, farmer field schools, problem census/problem solving, and other approaches.
  • Seevers, B. et al. 1997. Education through cooperative extension. Delmar, Albany, NY. $36.
  • Shingi, P. M., S. Wadwalkar and G. Kaur. 1982. Management of agricultural extension: Training and visit system in Rajasthan. Centre for Management in Agriculture, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad.
  • *Swanson, B. E. (ed.). 1998. Improving agricultural extension: A reference manual, FAO, Rome. 16 chapters in 4 sections: evolution of egricultural extension, the framework of extension, improving extension programmes, and strengthening the structure and function of extension.
  • Swanson, B. E. (ed.). 1991. Report of the Global Consultation on Agricultural Extension. FAO, Rome.
  • Umali, D. L. and L. Schwartz. 1994. Public and private extension. World Bank Discussion Paper 236. Washington, DC.
  • Van de Fliert, E. 1993. Integrated pest management: Farmer field schools generate sustainable practices: A case study in Central Java evaluating IPM training. Wageningen Agricultural University Paper 93-3.
  • *Van den Ban, A. W., and H. S. Hawkins. 1996. Agricultural extension. 2nd ed. Blackwell Science, Oxford. ISBN 0 632 04053 X.
  • University textbook on extension. Chapters on extension and extension education, influencing human behaviour, ethics, extension theory, extension methods, planning extension programmes, evaluation and action research, and management of extension organizations. £17.95; CBS Publishers, New Delhi, Rs200. Different versions and translations of this book have been printed in 11 languages.
  • Venketasan, V. and J. Kampen. 1998. Evolution of agricultural services in Sub-Saharan Africa: Trends and prospects. World Bank Discussion Paper 390, Washington, DC.
  • Zijp, W. 1991. From extension to agricultural information management: Issues and recommendations from World Bank experience in the Middle East and North Africa. World Bank, Washington, DC.

Agricultural research and management

  • Antholt, C. H. 1994. Getting ready for the twenty-first century: Technical change and institutional modernization in agriculture, World Bank Technical Paper 217, Washington, DC.
  • Byerlee, D. et al. 1980. Planning technologies appropriate to farmers: Concepts and procedures, CIMMYT, Publication Division, Londres 40, Apdo, Postal 6-641, 06600 Mexico DF, Mexico.
  • CIMMYT. 1988. From agronomic data to farmer recommendations: An economics training manual. Revised ed. CIMMYT, Publication Division, Londres 40, Apdo, Postal 6-641, 06600 Mexico DF, Mexico.
  • Ewell, P. T. 1988. Organization and management of field activities in on-farm research: A review of experiences in nine countries, OFCOR Comparative Study 2, ISNAR, The Hague.
  • IRRI. 1991. Basic procedures for agro-economic research. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines. Revised ed. In particular, chapter 10, Economic analysis of new technologies, is important for extension.
  • Lipton, M. and R. Longhurst. 1989. New seeds and poor people. Unwin Hyman, London. Shows how research can contribute to a decrease in income differences.
  • *Moris, J. and J. Copestake. 1993. Qualitative enquiry for rural development: A review. Intermediate Technology Publications, London.
  • Mosher, A. T. 1966. Getting agriculture moving. Agricultural Development Council, New York. Gives very clearly the basic principles of agricultural development.
  • Nichols, P. 1991. Social survey methods: A field guide for development workers. Oxfam, Oxford.
  • *Norman, D. W. et al. 1995. The farming system approach to development and appropriate technology generation. FAO Farm Systems Management Series 10, Rome.
  • Ruttan, V. W. 1987. Agricultural research policy development. FAO Research and Technology Paper 2, Rome.
  • Veldhuizen, L. et al. (eds). 1997. Farmers’ research in practice: Lessons from the field. Intermediate Technology Publications, London.

Communication general

  • *De Vito, J. A. 1994. Human communication: The basic course. Harper Collins, New York.
  • Engel, J. F., R. D. Blackwell and P. W. Miniard. 1986. Consumer Behavior. CBS International Editions, New York. A good source of information on the commercial experience in influencing human behavior.
  • Hartley, P. 1993. Interpersonal communication. Routledge, London.
  • Lishman, J. 1994. Communication in social work. MacMillan, Houndsmill, UK. A clear discussion of communication skills, which are often also relevant for agricultural extension.

Communication how-to manuals

  • AMIC India. 1995. See, judge, act: A media kit for the community worker. Asian Mass Communication Research and Information Centre (AMIC), Madras. Covers posters, theatre, puppetry, group discussions, songs, newspapers, sound, slide shows, advertising and film. Available from AMIC, Jurong Point PO Box 360, Singapore 916412,
  • AMIC. 1995. Having fun with media. Asian Mass Communication Research and Information Centre (AMIC), Madras, India. Workbook for children, but also useful for adults. Covers pictures, posters, words, newspapers, theatre, sound, advertising and film. Available from AMIC, Jurong Point PO Box 360, Singapore 916412,
  • Bunch, M. 1989. Speak with confidence: A practical guide to a better voice, Kogan Page, London.
  • Burke, Adam. 1999. Communications and development: A practical guide. Social Development Division, Department for International Development, London. ISBN 1 86192 004 0. Covers communication planning, drama (theatre and video), television and radio, information technology, networks and public relations.
  • *Calvert, Patricia (ed.). 1996. The communicator’s handbook: Tools techniques and technology. 3rd ed. Maupin House, Gainesville, Florida. ISBN 0 929895 16 9. Guide to how to use various types of media to promote rural development. Aimed primarily at extension workers in the USA, but useful also for developing countries.
  • De Vreede, M. Video for development. Africa Media Monograph Series 8. ACCE, Nairobi.
  • Deza, A. B. 1995. The poster handbook: An orientation to visual communication. Asian Social Institute, Manila. Guidelines on how to do posters.
  • GTZ. 1988. ZOPP: An introduction to the method. GTZ, Eschborn, Germany. This method of goal-oriented programme planning is prescribed in all German development projects, but also used in other extension projects.
  • *Harford, Nicola and Nicola Baird. 1997. How to make and use visual aids. Heinemann, London. ISBN 0 43592 317 X. Practical, low-cost suggestions for visual aids.
  • Heron, J. 1989. Helping the client: A creative practical guide, Sage, London.
  • IIRR. 1987. Communicating development. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite, Philippines. ISBN 0 942717 25 2. Illustrated guidelines on producing instructional materials, and sample materials on participation and health care.
  • Linney, Bob. 1995. Pictures, people and power: People-centred visual aids for development. Macmillan, London. ISBN 0 333 60044 4. Practical guidelines for non-artists to make their own visual aids.
  • *Pett, Dennis W. (ed.). Audio-visual communication handbook. World Neighbors, Oklahoma City. How-to guide, covers planning instructional materials, using media, presentation methods and materials, basic production techniques, and writing. Useful set of clip art in the back. No longer available from World Neighbors.
  • Tripathi, Bansh R. 1991. Roles of visuals in scientific presentations. Communication instruction series: Audiotutorial module 1. ILCA, Addis Ababa.
  • Tripathi, Bansh R. 1991. Speaking at scientific meetings: Organising the message. Communication instruction series: Audiotutorial module 2. ILCA, Addis Ababa.
  • Tripathi, Bansh R. Speaking at scientific meetings: Oral presentation techniques. Communication instruction series: Audiotutorial module 3. ILCA, Addis Ababa.
  • Zeitlyn, Jonathan. 1988. Effective publicity and design: A do-it-yourself guide. InterChange Books, London. ISBN 0 948309 03 2. Illustrated guide to design and graphics techniques.

Development communication

  • Agunga, Robert. Developing the Third World: A Communication Approach. Nova Social Science Books, Commack, NY.
  • Beal, G. M. et al. (eds). 1986. Knowledge generation, exchange and utilization. Westview, Boulder, CO.
  • Boeren, Ad and Kees Epskamp (eds). 1992. The empowerment of culture: Development communication and popular media. CESO paperback 17. Centre for the Study of Education in Developing Countries (CESO), The Hague. ISBN 90 6443 120 5. Covers education and communication, visual literacy, popular theatre, popular radio and cassettes, and media and development policies.
  • FAO. Communication for Development case studies. Series of case studies on development communication. Available from FAO, Communication for Development Branch, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.
  • *Fraser, Colin, and Sonia Restrepo-Estrada. 1998. Communicating for development: Human change and survival. I B Tauris, London. ISBN 1 86064 238 1. Shows how communication has been used to mobilize societies, facilitate democracy and help people gain new knowledge and skills.
  • Gonzalez, Hernando. 1991. Some myths of communication and development: Why information campaigns fail and how they can succeed. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite, Philippines. ISBN 0 942717 26 0. 29 myths and why they are wrong.
  • Hornik, Robert C. 1988. Development communication: Information, agriculture and nutrition in the Third World. Longman, White Plains, New York. ISBN 0 582 28520 8. Textbook with critical view of extension and development communication.
  • Melkote, Srinivas. 1991. Communication and development in the third world: Theory and practice. Sage, New Delhi. ISBN 81 7036 228 8 or 0 8039 9684 5. Covers the history of development communication from the 1950s onwards.
  • Nair, K. S. and S. A. White (eds). 1993. Perspectives on development communication. Sage, New Delhi.
  • Narula, U. and W. B. Pearce. 1986. Development as communication: A perspective on India. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale, IL.
  • Ostman, R. E. (ed.). 1989. Communication and Indian agriculture. Sage, New Delhi.
  • People in Communication and AMIC. 1995. Media education: A teaching manual. People in Communication, Manila; and Asian Mass Communication Research and Information Centre (AMIC), Singapore. ISBN 971 547 071 8. Undergraduate manual for teaching media. Covers an overview of media education; media awareness and literacy (radio, TV, newspapers, magazines, advertising, comics, pop music); media and reality; media and values; and telecommunication technologies. Available from AMIC, Jurong Point PO Box 360, Singapore 916412,
  • Rogers, E. M. and T. M. Steinfatt. 1999. Intercultural communication. Waveland Press, Prospect Heights, IL 60070.
  • Singhal, A. and E. M. Rogers. 1999. Entertainment-education: A communication strategy for social change. Mawhah, New Jersey/Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, London.
  • Sinha, A. K. 1985. Mass media and rural development. Concept, New Delhi.
  • *Windahl, S. and B. Signitzer. 1992. Using communication theory. Sage, London. An excellent overview of the way mass communication theory can be used by practitioners.
  • Woods, B. 1993. Communication, technology and the development of people. Routledge, London. Discusses potentials of information and communication technology.

Development general

  • Anonymous. 1997. Human development report. Oxford University Press, New York. Discusses experiences with and possibilities for poverty eradication.
  • Axinn, G. H. and N. W. Axinn. 1997. Collaboration in international development cooperation. Sage, New Delhi.
  • *Eade, Deborah and Suzanne Williams. 1995. The Oxfam Handbook of Development and Relief. 3 vols, 1,200 pp. ISBN 0 85598 274 8. 3-volume set with guidelines on managing NGOs and development projects.
  • IFPRI and NGS. 1995. A 2020 vision for food, agriculture and the environment. International Food Policy Research Institute and National Geographic Society, Washington, DC.
  • Watkins, K. 1995. The Oxfam poverty report. Oxfam, Oxford.
  • World Bank. 19999. World development report: Knowledge for development. Oxford University Press, New York.

Diffusion of innovations

  • Dasgupta, S. 1989. Diffusion of agricultural innovations in village India. Wiley Eastern, New Delhi.
  • Havelock, R. G. et al. 1969. Planning of innovation: A comparative study of the literature on dissemination and utilization of knowledge. Center for Research on the Utilization of Scientific Knowledge, Ann Arbor. One of the classics; an important basis for extension education.
  • Rogers, Everett M. 1983. Diffusion of innovations. 3rd ed. Free Press, New York. ISBN 0 02 926650 5. Classic on diffusion theory.
  • *Rogers, Everett M. 1995. Diffusion of innovations, 4th ed., Free Press, New York. A good overview of the research on the adoption and diffusion of innovations, which has had considerable impact on the thinking about extension. Older editions are quite different from this edition.


  • Mytton, Graham. 1999. Handbook on radio and television audience research. BBC World Service Training Trust, London; Unesco, Paris; and Unicef, New York. ISBN 92 806 3393 7. How to do audience research.
  • Bennett, C. F. 1976. Analysing impacts of extension programmes. USDA Extension Service, Washington, DC. One of the best publications on evaluation.
  • Bennett, C. F. 1990. Cooperative Extension roles and relationships for a new era: A new interdependence model and evaluation synthesis to foster work with other agencies and organizations. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA.
  • Casley, D. J. and K. Kumar. 1988. The collection, analysis and use of monitoring and evaluation data. John Hopkins, Baltimore, MD.
  • Hayami, Y. and V. W. Ruttan. 1987. Evaluator’s handbook. Sage, Newbury Park. Accompanied by a set of 8 how-to books.
  • *Patton, M. Q. 1997. Utilization-focused evaluation. 3rd ed. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
  • Raab, R. Y. et al. 1987. A trainer’s guide to evaluation: A guide to training activity improvement. FAO, Rome.


  • *DevArt: Artwork for development.
  • Linney, Bon, and Bruce Wilson. 1988. The copy book: Copyright-free illustrations for development. Intermediate Technology Publications, London. ISBN 0 946688 443. Collection of copyright-free artwork, plus a guide on how to use and adapt it.
  • Mundy, Paul and Hendi Bachtiar. 1992. Clip art for development: Copyright-free illustrations for development. Department of Journalism and Mass Communication, Iowa State University, Ames, IA. Over 100 pages of copyright-free, black-and-white line drawings for development. Focus on farming and Southeast Asia. Pictures are classified as “crops”, “livestock”, “people” and “other”.
  • *Röhr-Rouendaal, Petra. 1997. Where there is no artist: Development drawings and how to use them. Intermediate Technology Publications, London. ISBN 1 85339 391 6. Collection of copyright-free artwork, plus a guide on how to use and adapt it.
  • Wright, A. 1000 pictures for teachers to copy. Thomas Nelson & Sons. Simple pictures to copy and add to your visual aids. IT Publications: £18.95 + postage & packing.

Indigenous knowledge

  • *Indigenous knowledge & development monitor CIRAN, PO Box 29777, 2502 LT The Hague, Netherlands. Free in developing countries. A newsletter on research on indigenous knowledge on agriculture, health and rural development.
  • Blunt, P. and D. M. Warren (eds). 1996. Indigenous organizations and development. Intermediate Technology Publications, London.
  • *IIRR. 1996. Recording and using indigenous knowledge: A manual. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite, Philippines. ISBN 0 942717 70 8. Illustrated guide to identifying, documenting and using indigenous knowledge in development.
  • *Warren, D. M. 1991. Using indigenous knowledge in agricultural development. World Bank Discussion Paper 127, Washington, DC.
  • Warren, D. M., L. J. Slikkeveer, and D. Brokensha (eds). 1995. Indigenous knowledge systems: The cultural dimension of development. Intermediate Technology Publications, London.

Information management

  • *Barker, A. 1997. How to be a better decision maker. London, Kogan Page. An excellent discussion of the way managers can take decisions in a rational way taking into account that decisions are made and implemented by people, who are also influenced by emotions.
  • Chamala, S. and P. D. Mortiss. 1990. Working together for landcare: Group management skills and strategies. Australian Academic Process, Brisbane.
  • Kieffer, G. D. 1988. The strategy of meetings, Warner, New York.
  • Orna, Elizabeth with Graham Stevens. 1995. Managing information for research. Open University Press, Buckingham, UK.  ISBN 0 335 019397 6. Advice on how to manage information for a research project (such as when writing a thesis).
  • Pareek, U. and T. V. Rao. 1992. Designing and managing human resource systems. Oxford and IBH, New Delhi.
  • Powell, Mike. 1999. Information management for development organisations. Oxfam, Oxford. ISBN 0 85598 410 4. How to access information, manage it and communicate it in the most effective and equitable way.
  • Selener, Daniel, with Christopher Purdy and Gabriela Zapata. 1996. A participatory systematization workbook: Documenting, evaluating and learning from our development projects. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Quito. ISBN 9978 04 241 5. How to do “systematization”: a continuous process of participatory reflection on a project’s processes and results, undertaken by project staff and participants. Illustrated.
  • Stevens, M. 1996. How to be a better problem solver. Kogan Page, London.


  • Baird, Nicola. 1994. Setting up and running a school library. Heinemann, London. ISBN 0 43592 304 8. Useful guide also for other small libraries
  • Philipps, Eva. 1990. Documentation made easy. Vieweg, Braunschweig, Germany. ISBN 3 528 02054 7. Library manual for NGOs specializing in appropriate technology and rural development.


  • Nelson, John, and John Farrington. Information exchange networking for agricultural development: A review of concepts and practices. Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), Wageningen, Netherlands. ISBN 92 9081 1137. Description of networking in theory and practice.
  • Starkey, Paul. 1997. Networking for development. International Forum for Rural Transport and Development, London. ISBN 1 85339 430 0. Discusses the benefits and problems of networking and sets out guidelines for successful networking with examples from a range of development networks. Provides a detailed case study of animal traction networks in Africa.


  • Bertcher, H. J. 1994. Group participation: Techniques for leaders and members. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage. Good for training discussion leaders.
  • *Brukey, S. 1993. People first: A guide to self-reliant, participatory rural development, Zed Books, London. Excellent.
  • Chambers, Robert, Arnold Pacey and Lori Ann Thrupp. 1989. Farmer first: Farmer innovation and agricultural research. Intermediate Technology Publications, London. ISBN 1 85339 007 0 or 0 942850 20 3. Covers ways of promoting innovation by farmers, putting farmer needs in the forefront of agricultural research and extension, encouraging participation, and changing research and extension institutions so they serve farmers better.
  • *Chambers, Robert. 1983. Rural development: Putting the last first. Longman, Harlow, UK. ISBN 0 582 64443 7. Argues that outsiders rarely perceive rural poverty, and that they rarely appreciate the richness and diversity of local people’s indigenous knowledge.
  • Chambers, R. 1993. Challenging the professions: Frontiers for rural development, Intermediate Technology Publications, London.
  • Chambers, Robert. 1997. Whose reality counts?: Putting the last first. Intermediate Technology Publications, London. ISBN 1 85339 386 X. Shows that the poor are able to analyse their situation and express their needs—often at odds with the top-down views of professionals. Argues that personal, professional and institutional change is essential if the realities of the poor are to receive greater attention.
  • Engel, Paul G. H. and Monique L. Salomon. Facilitating innovation for development. Royal Tropical Institute, Netherlands. ISBN 90 6832 109 9. Describes RAAKS, the rapid (or relaxed) appraisal of agricultural knowledge systems. Box includes two books: “The social organization of innovation” and “Networking for innovation”, and a set of cards.
  • FAO. 1994. Participatory rapid appraisal of farmers’ agricultural knowledge and communication systems, FAO, Rome.
  • FAO and IIRR. 1995. Resource management for upland areas in Southeast Asia: An information kit. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite 4118, Philippines. 207 pp. ISBN 0-942717-65-1. Covers a broad range of social and biophysical technologies used in agroforestry in Southeast Asia
  • Grandstaff, T. B. and D. A. Messerschmidt. 1995. A manager’s guide to the use of rapid rural appraisal. Bangkok, FAO.
  • IIRR. 1998. Participatory methods in community-based coastal resource management. 3 vols. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite, Philippines. ISBN 0 942717 90 2. Illustrated guide to participatory techniques in coastal areas.
  • *PLA Notes. International Institute for Environment and Development, 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H ODD. ISSN 1357 938 X. PLA stands for “participatory learning and action”, formerly called rapid rural appraisal or participatory rural appraisal. This series has lots of ideas on how to do participatory appraisal in many different situations.
  • *Pretty, J. N. et al. 1995. A trainer’s guide for participatory learning and action. International Institute for Environment and Development, London.
  • Röling, N. G. and M. A. E. Wagemakers (eds). 1998. Facilitating sustainable agriculture: Participatory learning and adaptive management in times of environmental uncertainty. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Van Veldhuizen, L., A. Waters-Bayer and H. de Zeeuw. 1997. Developing technology with farmers: A trainer’s guide for participatory learning. Zed Books, London.
  • White, Shirley with K. Sadanandan Nair and Joseph Ascroft (eds). 1994. Participatory communication: Working for change and development. Sage, New Delhi. ISBN 81 7036 370 5 or 0 8039 9143 6. Multi-author volume covering perspectives on participation, participatory approaches and models, participatory decision-making and action, and participatory message-making.
  • World Bank. 1996. The World Bank participation sourcebook. World Bank, Washington, DC.

Public relations

  • Ali, Moi. 1995. The DIY guide to public relations for charities, voluntary organisation and community groups. Directory of Social Change, London. ISBN 1 873860 80 3. Covers internal PR, media relations, event management, publications, using designers and printers, campaigning, photography, exhibitions, videos, advertising and sponsorships, customer care and using PR consultants.
  • Benn, Alec. 1982. The 23 most common mistakes in public relations. Amacom, American Management Associations, New York. ISBN 971 08 0456 1. How to influence the public.
  • Greenberg, R. H., J. R. Williams, J. A. Yonkler, G. B. Saffitz and J. G. Ramon II. 1996. How to select and work with an advertising agency: Handbook for population and health communication programs. Population Communication Services, Center for Communication Programs, The Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland. How to deal with ad agencies when planning a social marketing campaign. Available from JHU School of Public Health, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012, USA, email, internet
  • Phillipson, Ian. 1995. How to do your own PR: Getting the right publicity for your organisation. How To Books, Plymouth. ISBN 1 85703 145 8. How to work with the media and get your message out.


  • Châtry-Komarek,Marie. Tailor-made textbooks: A practical guide for the authors of textbooks for primary schools in developing countries. CODE Europe, Oxford. ISBN 0 9528651 0 6. Useful not only for primary school textbooks, but for all those planning to produce their own publications.
  • Montagnes, Ian. 1998. An introduction to publishing management. Working Group on Books and Learning Materials of the Association for the development of Education in Africa. ISBN 1 901830 06 3. Chapters cover strategic planning in publishing textbooks, developing manuscripts, production costs, budgeting, financial management and marketing.
  • Nyeko, Janet A. 1999. The ABC of book publishing: A training manual for NGOs in Africa. J A Nyeko Publishing and CTA, Kampala. ISBN 9970 510 01 2.
  • *Zeitlyn, Jonathan. 1988. Low cost printing for development: A printing handbook for Third World development and education. Intermediate Technology Publications, London. ISBN 1 85339 065 8. How to do printing without spending too much money.


  • CTA. 1995. Radio at the service of the rural world in ACP countries. Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), Wageningen, Netherlands.
  • de Fossard, Esta. 1996. How to write a radio serial drama for social development: A script writer’s manual. Population Communication Services, Center for Communication Programs, The Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland. How-to manual on radio scriptwriting. Available from JHU School of Public Health, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012, USA, email, internet
  • de Fossard, Esta. 1998. How to design and produce radio serial drama for social development: A program manager’s guide. Population Communication Services, Center for Communication Programs, The Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland. How-to manual on radio drama. Available from JHU School of Public Health, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012, USA, email, internet

Research–extension linkages

  • Asopa, V. N. and G. Beye. 1997. Management of agricultural research: A training manual. Module 8: Research–extension linkage. FAO, Rome. Introductory training module on research–extension linkages, to be covered in a single session in a training course on research management.
  • Eponou, Th. 1993. Partners in agricultural technology: Linking research and technology transfer to serve farmers, ISNAR, PO Box 93375, 2509 AJ The Hague, Netherlands.
  • FAO. 2000. Agricultural knowledge and information systems for rural development (AKIS/RD): Strategic vision and guiding principles. FAO, Rome, and World Bank, Washington, DC.
  • Kaimowitz, David (ed.). 1990. Making the link: Agricultural research and technology transfer in developing countries. Westview, Boulder, Colorado. ISBN 0 8133 7896 6. Multi-author volume on research-extension linkages.
  • *Merrill-Sands, D. and D. Kaimowitz. 1990. The technology triangle: Linking farmers, technology transfer agents and agricultural researchers, ISNAR, PO Box 93375, 2509 AJ The Hague, Netherlands.
  • Mundy, Paul. 1992. Information sources of agricultural extension specialists in Indonesia. PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI. Study of where Indonesian extension specialists get their information, and why. Shows that research ranks low (after farmers, other extension staff, mass media, etc.), and information flows are very slow. Suggests some improvements.
  • Seegers, S. and D. Kaimowitz. 1989. Relations between agricultural researchers and extension workers: The survey evidence. Linkages Discussion Paper 2, ISNAR, PO Box 93375, 2509 AJ The Hague, Netherlands.
  • Stoop, W. A. 1988. NARS linkages in technology generation and technology transfer. Working Paper 11, ISNAR, PO Box 93375, 2509 AJ The Hague, Netherlands.

Rural sociology and community organizing

  • Beers, G. et al. 1996. Farmers in small-scale and large-scale agriculture: Objectives, decision making and information requirements. Onderzoeksverslag 143, Agricultural Economics Research Institute, The Hague. Reports studies on the use of computers to support decision making.
  • *Cernea, M. (ed.). 1991. Putting people first: Sociological variables in rural development, Oxford University Press, New York, 2nd ed.
  • Caroll, T. F. 1992. Intermediary NGOs: The supporting link in grassroots development. West Garford, Kumarian Press.
  • Davies, A. 1997. Managing for change: How to run community development projects. Intermediate Technology Publications and VSO, London.
  • Diagne, D. and D. Pesche (eds). 1995. Peasant and rural organizations: Forces for the development of Sub-Saharan Africa. Ministère français de la coopération, Paris. Discuses how to stimulate the development of effective farmers organizations.
  • Eicher, C. K. 1989. Sustainable institutions for African agricultural development. Working Paper 19, ISNAR, The Hague.
  • Eicher, C. K., and J. M. Staatz (eds). 1990. Agricultural development in the Third World.  John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
  • Gubbels, Peter, and Catheryn Koss. 2000. From the roots up: Strengthening organizational capacity through guided self-assessment. World Neighbors, Oklahoma City, OK. 184 pp. ISBN 0-942716-10-8. Provides an overview of organizational capacity building and assessment and offers 49 participatory exercises to conduct with local NGO and community group members.  The guide also gives guidance on how to prepare for and carry out an organizational self-assessment and presents group processes for adapting and creating exercises, and synthesizing, analyzing and documentating results.  Available from World Neighbors for $20 plus postage, 4127 N.W. 122nd St., Oklahoma City, OK 73118, USA; tel. +1-405-752 9700, fax +1-405-752 9393,
  • Kaplan, A. 1996. The development practitioners’ handbook. Pluto Press, London, Chicago.
  • Leonard, D. K. 1977. Reaching the peasant farmer: Organization theory and practice in Kenya, University of Chicago Press. An excellent empirical study.
  • Pradervand, P. 1989. Listening to Africa: Developing Africa from the grassroots, Praeger, New York. Shows how farmer’s organizations can make major contributions to agricultural development.
  • Rogers, E. M. et al. 1988. Social change in rural societies: An introduction to rural sociology, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs. A leading textbook on rural sociology; emphasis on the USA.
  • Samanta, R. K. (ed.). 1995. Women in agriculture: Perspective, issues and experiences. M. D. Publications, New Delhi.

Social marketing, social mobilization

  • *McKee, Neill. 1993. Social mobilization and social marketing in developing countries: Lessons for communicators. Southbound, Penang. ISBN 963 9054 01 5. The best introduction to social mobilization and social marketing.
  • Valbuena, Victor T. (ed.). 1991. Modules in public education and social marketing. Asian Mass Communication Research and Information Centre (AMIC), Singapore. ISBN 9971 905 47 7. Booklets cover problem identification and needs analysis, audience segmentation and identification, setting objectives, designing messages for target audiences, using media and materials, exploring community resources, preparing a work plan, and project evaluation. Available from AMIC, Jurong Point PO Box 360, Singapore 916412,
  • Valdecanas, Ofelia C., Ramon R Tuazon, and Delia R Barcelona. 1996. How social mobilization works: The Philippine experience. Unicef, Manila. ISBN 971 529 0616 7. Outline of social mobilization approaches, plus 7 case studies.

Social psychology

  • Atkinson, R. L. et al. 1990. Introduction to psychology. 10th ed., Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, Orlando. FL.
  • Beach, L. R. 1997. The psychology of decision making: People in organizations. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
  • Rothstein, P. R. 1990. Educational psychology. McGraw Hill’s College Review Books, New York. A rather simple overview of the most important theories of learning, instructional model, problem solving, etc.

Style guides

  • CBE. CBE style manual: A guide for authors, editors and publishers in the biological sciences. Council of Biology Editors, Bethesda, MD. Style manual for biological sciences.
  • French, Christopher, Eileen Alt Powell and Howard Angione (eds). 1984. The Associated Press stylebook and libel manual. Associated Press, New York. Stylebook used by AP journalists.
  • The Economist. 1996. The Economist style guide. Profile Books, London. ISBN 1 86197 038 2. Amusing style guide, used by The Economist news weekly.
  • *University of Chicago Press. 1982. The Chicago manual of style. 13th ed. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. ISBN 0 226 10390 0. Style guide for book publishing.


  • CEDPA. 1995. Training trainers for development: Conducting a workhop on participatory training techniques. CEDPA Training Manual Series Volume 1. Centre for Development and Population Activities, Washington, DC.
  • *Hope, Anne and Sally Timmel. 1984. Training for transformation: A handbook for community workers. Mambo Press, Harare. ISBN 0 86922 256 2. Three illustrated volumes on Freirean approaches to training and community development. Has been very influential.
  • IIRR. 1987. Training resource book: primary health care, family planning, women in development. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite, Philippines. Ideas for training in health-related topics.
  • Minnick, Dan R. 1989. A guide to creating self-learning materials. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines. How to create materials that people can use to teach themselves.
  • Narayan, D, and L. Srinivasan. Participatory development tool kit: Training materials for agencies and communities. World Bank, Washington, DC.
  • Pareek, U. and T. V. Rao. 1991. Developing motivation through experiencing: A trainers’ guide for behaviour simulation in motivation training, 2nd ed. Oxford & IBH, New Delhi.
  • *Pretty, Jules N., Irene Gujit, John Thompson and Ian Scoones. 1995. Participatory learning and action: A trainer’s guide. IIED participatory methodology series. International Institute for Environment and Development, London. ISBN 1 899825 00 2. Illustrated guidelines for trainers using PLA (also known as “participatory rural appraisal”).
  • Singh, R. P., A. Jhamtani and P. Singh (eds). 1996. Training management: A handbook. Jain Brothers, New Delhi.
  • Srinivasan, Lyra. 1990. Tools for community participation: A manual for training trainers in participatory techniques. ISBN 0 912917 20 2. Planning and implementing participatory workshops, and 39 participatory training activities. Illustrated.
  • Stewart, Susan. 1998. Learning together: The agricultural worker's participatory sourcebook. Heifer Project International, Little Roack, AR, and Christian Veterinary Mission, Seattle, WA.
  • Tyler, R. W. 1969. Basic principles of curriculum and instruction. 29th impression, University of Chicago, Chicago. A classic on programme development.
  • VSO, IIRR and PEPE. 1998. Creative training: A user’s guide. Voluntary Service Overseas, Quezon City; International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite; and Popular Education for People’s Empowerment, Quezon City, Philippines. ISBN 0 942717 89 9. 34 illustrated techniques for lively training.
  • Welbourn, Alice. 1995. Stepping stones: A training package on HIV/AIDS, communication and relationship skills. ActionAid, London. ISBN 1 872502 33 4. Manual for community-level training workshop on AIDS/HIV, used with an accompanying video.
  • Wentling, T. 1993. Planning for effective training: A guide to curriculum development. FAO, Rome.
  • Werner, David and Bill Bower. 1982. Helping health workers learn. Hesperian Foundation, Palo Alto, California. ISBN 0 942364 10 4. Now classic companion to Where there is no doctor. Methods, aids and ideas for village-level health instructors. Gives many practical ideas on extension in developing countries.

Writing and editing

  • Barker, Alan, and Firoze Manji. 2000. Writing for Change: An Interactive Guide to Effective Writing, Writing for Science, and Writing for Advocacy. CD-ROM. IDRC, Ottawa. ISBN 0-88936-932-1. Available from IDRC or (in Europe) from fahamu, 38 Western Road, Oxford OX1 4LG, UK.
  • Braidwood, Barbara, Richard Cropp, and Susan M. Boyce. 1999. Writing magazine and newspaper articles. Self-Counsel Press, North Vancouver, Canada. ISBN 1-55180-193-0.
  • Butcher, Judith. 1996. Copy-editing: The Cambridge handbook for editors, authors and publishers. 3rd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0 521 56648 7. How to copy-edit a book.
  • Day, Robert A. 1983. How to write and publish a scientific paper. ISI Press, Philadelphia. ISBN 0 89495 022 3. Step-by-step guide on how to write and edit a scientific paper. Pre-computer age, but still useful.
  • Gastel, Barbara. 1983. Presenting science to the public. Institute for Scientific Information, Philadelphia. ISBN 0 89495 029 0. How to work with the media.
  • Hawkins, Clifford, and Marco Sorgi. 1985. Research: How to plan, speak and write about it. Springer, Berlin. ISBN 3 540 13992 3. Pre-computer, but still useful.
  • Maslog, Crispin C. and Alice Colet-Villadolid (eds). 1992. Science and science writing. Philippine Press Institute. ISBN 971-8703 07 1. How to write science.
  • *Montagnes, Ian. 1991. Editing and publication: A training manual. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños; and International Development Research Centre, Ottawa. ISBN 971 22 0009 4. Training manual for science editors in developing countries.
  • *Montagnes, Ian. 1991. Editing and publication: A handbook for trainers. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños; and International Development Research Centre, Ottawa. ISBN 971 22 0009 6. Trainer’s handbook, companion to the book above.
  • O’Connor, Maeve. 1978. Editing scientific books and journals. Pitman Medical, Tunbridge Wells, UK. ISBN 0 272-79517 8. How-to guide. A classic, pre-computer age, but still useful. Out of print.
  • Reynolds, Linda and Doig Simmonds. 1982. Presentation of data in science. Martinus Nijhoff, London. ISBN 90 247 3054 6. Principles and practices for publications, slides, posters, overhead projections, slide-tapes and television. Pre-computer age, but still useful.
  • Stapleton, P., A. Youdeowei, J. Mukanyange and H. van Houten. 1995. Scientific writing for agricultural research scientists: A training reference manual. WARDA, Abidjan and CTA, Wageningen. ISSN 92 91130699.
  • Turabian, Kate L. A manual for writers of term papers, theses and dissertations. 4th ed. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. ISBN 0 226 81621. Style manual for students.
]]> (Administrator) Development communication Sat, 08 Feb 2014 14:44:48 +0000
Jobs in development communication

Development communication is an extraordinarily broad field. It covers a wide range of topics, from the traditional themes of agriculture, health and public awareness, to newer areas such as governance, small and medium enterprises (SMEs), urban development, youth, and so on.

Communication uses a wide range of approaches, from "social marketing" (which draws on advertising and marketing to promote development goals) to participatory approaches that work with local people and help them communicate their needs and opinions to others. It covers lobbying and advocacy, mass marketing and highly targeted campaigns.

Communication can serve various audiences: farmers, villagers, herders, teachers, students, women, policy makers, extension workers, scientists, unemployed youths, prostitutes, health workers, suicidal teenagers, small businesspeople, fisherfolk, government officials, treaty negotiators, donors, ethnic minorities... the list is long. Determining the correct audience is a vital part of a successful communication intervention.

Communication uses many different types of media: mass media such as radio, television and the press; electronic media such as emails and websites; interpersonal media such as training courses, meetings and face-to-face contact; narrowcast media such as posters, flyers and handouts. click here for a longer list.

Jobs in development communication fall into several categories:

  • Full-time, long-term: e.g., information officer for a major international NGO.
  • Part-time, long-term: e.g, monitoring, evaluation and communication officer for an NGO.
  • University: e.g., professor of journalism specializing in development communication
  • Long-term consulting
  • Short-term consulting

Applying for a job

Emphasize overseas experience, any country skills and the languages you speak. Donors and host governments are (quite rightly) increasingly insisting that consultants speak the local language. The development banks have a points system for evaluating proposed consultancy teams: so-and-so many points for a PhD, so-and-so many for ability in the local language, etc.

Provide your curriculum vita (CV) in the right format. It's a good idea to keep several versions of your CV:

  • EU format. This has full listing of all the jobs you have done, in the format required by the European Union.
  • Other formats required by major donors (such as USAID, FAO or ADB)
  • A one-pager. This is a one-page CV, with your contact details and a summary of your education, skills and experience.
  • A "bioblurb" - a paragraph (or paragraphs, up to half a page) describing your skills and experience. You can prepare several such paragraphs, each stressing different aspects of your work, then pull out sections from each one to suit the particular job you are applying for.

Keep the various versions updated so you can send them out at short notice. Consulting firms work to tight deadlines when preparing project proposals. Be ready to provide extra information or corrections to your CV at short notice as a deadline nears.

Consider creating a website of your own, describing your work and experience, and including your CV to download. There are risks in this - you may become the target of spam (unwanted emails), for example. Do not put any sensitive personal information on your website.

Sign up to LinkedIn, a popular professional social networking site that allows you to post your CV. An increasing number of organizations check LinkedIn for the profile of candidates during the hiring process.

Where to look for jobs

Newspapers and magazines

  • The Economist (a British weekly news magazine)
  • The Guardian Weekly (a British weekly newspaper)
  • The Herald Tribune
  • The New York Times
  • The Washington Post (all US newspapers)

Consultancy firms

Consultancy firms generally have databases of CVs. Search for the names of these firms (the newspapers and magazines are a good place to start), and visit their websites to find out how to submit your CV to them. Many firms require CVs in a particular format - which mean lots of form-filling - all the formats are different!


There is a group of consultancy firms based around Washington DC, called the 'Beltway Bandits'. Among these are:

  • Abt Associates
  • Academy for Educational Development
  • Chemonics
  • Development Alternatives
  • Johns Hopkins University
  • Louis Berger
  • Macro
  • Sheladia
  • Winrock International

Big engineering firms (Bechtel) and management consultancies (KPMG, Accenture, Cap Gemini) are also into "emerging markets", though mainly in financial management (which pays more).


  • Agristudio
  • Agriconsulting
  • BDPA
  • Cardno Agrisystems
  • DHV
  • ECA
  • GFA
  • Hassall
  • IMC Consulting
  • Jules Van Lancker
  • LTS
  • Masdar
  • Mott MacMillian Euroconsult
  • MRAG
  • Orgut
  • Scott Wilson


  • Cardno ACIL


Donors employ their own staff, as well as some consultants directly, to do things like design and evaluate projects. They also hire consultancy firms to do some of this work for them. Working for a donor directly means you can may a higher payment rate than if you do the same job through a firm (which must charge for overhead).

The development banks have consultants' registers: Asian Development Bank, World Bank, African Development Bank, Interamerican Development Bank, etc. So do UN institutions (WHO, UNOPS, UNAIDS, etc.).

Each of the main donor countries has its own development agency: BMZ (Germany), CIDA (Canada), DEZA (Netherlands), DFID (UK), Finnida (Finland), JICA (Japan), NORAD (Norway), SDC (Switzerland), SIDA (Sweden), USAID (USA). The larger projects are managed by headquarters; individual country embassies has smaller pots of money they use to support projects in that country.

The European Union likes to hire Europeans, and USAID has a similar rule for US citizens. So if you're a US citizen, you're not likely to get work from Europe.

Other employers

  • Universities also do consulting, often in research rather than project implementation. Many US universities are members of consortia which bid for USAID and other projects. These include the Midwest Universities Consortium for International Activities (MUCIA) and others. These consortia employ mainly their own faculty, but you might get lucky, especially if you have a niche specialty they don't have anyone on staff for.
  • International NGOs often need people to do things like project design and evaluation. They include: CAFOD, CARE, CRS, Evangelische Entwicklungsdient, GIZ, Lutheran World Federation, Misereor, Oxfam Novib,and a whole lot more.
  • Think tanks do their own research and policy work. They include the Natural Resources Institute, Overseas Development Institute (both in the UK), ETC, Royal Tropical Institute (both in the Netherlands).
  • International agricultural research centres include the CGIAR, a network of a dozen or so research centres covering rice (IRRI, AfricaRice), maize & wheat (CIMMYT), fisheries (WorldFish), genetic resources (IBPGRI), agroforestry (ICRAF), forestry (CIFOR), potatoes (CIP), dry areas (ICARDA), semi-arid tropics (ICRISAT), vegetables, tropics (IITA, CIAT), food policy (IFPRI), livestock (ILRI), water (IWMI). Similar research institutes not in the CGIAR cover fertilizers (IFDC) and vegetables (AVRDC).

Personal contacts

Many jobs are still filled through personal contacts. When a personnel manager or proposal writer wants to fill a vacancy, he or she may use different ways to find a suitable person. These methods include advertising in the media (print or electronic), and calling or emailing contacts to ask if they know someone with the right qualifications.

Cultivate your contacts, let them know that you're looking for a job, and if appropriate, send them a copy of your cv so they know what you've been doing recently.


If an employer does not already know you, they may want to ask your previous employers about you. Have a list of three or four referees (along with their names and contact information) ready to send out. These should be people who know you well, have worked with you fairly recently, and who you think will tell the prospective employer good things about you and your work. Try to give the name of previous employers if you can (though if you want to switch from your current job, you may not wish to give the name of your current employer!).

Ask these individuals beforehand if it's OK to put them on your list of referees. It's best to ask them again each time you name them as a referee for a particular job application. (You can send them information about the job you're applying for as well, so they can judge whether you'd be a good candidate for the job.) Or you can send them a note to say you have named them as a referee for a particular job.

Payment rates

Rates depend on various factors:

  • Your qualifications and experience
  • Where you are resident (employers seem to be prepared to pay more for people who live in high-cost countries)
  • The topic area and job requirements (more for rare types of expertise and for senior positions such as team leader)
  • The location (more for dangerous or expensive places)
  • The donor and employer (bilateral donors, for example, tend to have more money than NGOs)
  • The project budget (some are generous, others stingy)
  • The length of the assignment (less per day for longer assignments)
  • The urgency of the assignment (employers sometimes need to hire someone at short notice, and are prepared to pay more for the right person).

Some employers (such as UN agencies and USAID) have strict rules governing how much they will pay for certain jobs. They look in particular at your qualifications and experience, then set a rate accordingly. Once you have been assigned a rate, it's difficult to increase it.

It's important to build up a salary history so you show a new employer that you have been paid a particular rate by others.

Some people set a fixed salary rate for all employers; others vary their rates from job to job.


Some employers have elaborate, multi-page contracts full of legalese. Others make do with a simple letter or email. Make sure you keep a signed copy of the contract in your files. Make an extra copy to submit to the tax authorities.

When negotiating your contract, make sure that it covers the following:

  • Tax. Who is responsible for paying tax? Check the rules for income tax and value-added tax. Some countries may charge you income tax even though you also pay tax in your home country. You may be liable to income tax or VAT, depending on where you do the work, where the funds are sourced from, whether you and the employer are VAT-registered, and how long you are abroad.
  • Timing of payments. Do you get paid some of the fee up front, or halfway through the job (for example, when you submit the first draft of a document)? Or do you have to wait until the job is completed before you can submit your overall invoice?
  • Per diem. If you must travel, are your hotel and other costs covered? Most employers provide a perdiem (more for expensive locations or for hardship postings) to cover things like accommodation, food and local travel. Others offer free food and accommodation in their own guesthouses - which vary in quality.
  • Expenses. Who pays for things like visa expenses, stationery, mailing, telecommunications, etc? Are these covered by the perdiem, or can you charge them separately to the employer?
  • Travel. Some employers like to buy you the air ticket themselves. Or you can buy your own ticket and ask to be reimbursed (this gives you more flexibility in terms of airlines and connections, but means you have to wait for payment).
  • Insurance and health care. What happens if you have an accident or fall ill while on assignment? Employers may require a medical certificate stating you are in good health. They may also require you to cover your own health insurance. Make sure your vaccinations are up to date.
  • Pension contributions. Employers do not cover pension contributions for short-term jobs. For longer-term assignments, make sure they are covered.
  • Family. If you take your family with you on a long-term job, does the employer cover housing, transport, schooling, medical coverage, etc?
  • Rights to materials. Who has the rights to the information materials (reports, publications, training materials, videos) that you gather and produce? Are you allowed to use them for other purposes after the end of the contract? Are you allowed to pass them on to someone else? Many employers will retain all rights, but they may allow you to make certain types of information public. For example, you might be able to use training materials you have developed in subsequent jobs, or post a copy of a publication you have developed on your own website.

Employers usually have several candidates for a job. One of these will be their preferred candidate (the person who has the best qualifications and experience), but if he or she turns out to be too expensive or fussy, the employer may choose someone else. It's worth asking if there are other candidates for the position, and if so, whether you are the preferred candidate.

Sometimes employers have already chosen the person they want, but have to invite other applicants in order to conform to their own required procedures. (This is probably illegal, but happens anyway.) You may find yourself applying for a job you have no chance of getting. It is hard to tell without inside knowledge what the actual situation is.


Tell potential employers whether you are available long-term (over 1 year), medium-term (3 months to 1 year) or short-term (less than 3 months), and where you would be (un)willing to work (e.g., not in areas with a security risk).

  • Long-term jobs provide stability and financial security
  • Shorter-term jobs give variety and flexibility but more risk of unemployment in the gaps between jobs, as well as a shorter time horizon: it can be disconcerting not to know if you have an income in the next month.

Consultancy firms may ask you to sign a Statement of Availability. This commits you to being available for a job if the firm wins the contract through a competitive bidding process.

You should not agree to be on two competing bids. The firm may also ask you to sign a Statement of Exclusivity. This means you may not be on a competing firm's bid for the same contract. Doing so may disqualify both bids.

The bidding process for consultancy contracts is fraught with uncertainties and delays. Try to avoid overlaps in potential commitments, but it may be impossible to do so. Keep all potential employers informed about the dates of your various commitments (it's not necessary to name the employers) so they can plan accordingly.

Job opportunity mailing lists and websites



Communication Initiative

  • This is the main site for devcomm types of all stripes. There's a classifieds section with job opportunities and a regular email newsletter called DrumBeat.

  • An extensive list of jobs in the development sector, with a free weekly email jobs newsletter and database of CVs.



  • Has a listing of German and European jobs.


  • Filterable list of development jobs. Register for free job alerts or follow via personalised RSS job feed. Post your CV online.



UN job list

]]> (Administrator) Development communication Sat, 08 Feb 2014 09:49:57 +0000
Making information available

Making information freely available

Here are some approaches for making information more readily available.

No copyright

Some organizations (often, but not always, NGOs) explicitly do not copyright their materials in the hope that others will translate and adapt it. An example is the International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, which has an excellent series of manuals on sustainable agriculture and natural resources conservation.

One way of making material available but restricting certain rights is to use one of the Creative Commons licenses.


Another approach is to produce books and give them away to certain people and organizations. CTA does this for agriculture in Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific.

Commercial publication

Many organizations publish their own books and manuals and distribute them free (or sell them themselves). That means that they have to cover all the preparation and printing costs, and then have pay for marketing and distribution too (often more expensive than the printing). The result is short print-runs, poorly marketed and distributed to relatively few people.

An alternative is to work with a commercial publisher. The publisher takes on the entrepreneurial risk of printing and marketing the book, and in return takes any of the profits. Unless you have a guaranteed best-seller, the publisher is unlikely to pay you for the rights to the book. Publishing can make you famous, but probably won't make you rich. You can negotiate for:

  • Royalties on each copy sold (if you insist on this, it may push up the price of the book).
  • A certain number of 'free' copies, which you may have to 'buy back' from the publisher at a discount.
  • Rights to sell the book in certain countries (eg, the developing world).
  • The copyright (enabling you to republish the book later or put it into a different form, such as a CD-ROM).
  • Translation rights (so you can translate the book into another language)

Development-oriented publishers who may be interested in such arrangements include Practical Action Publications (in the UK) and LM Publishers (in the Netherlands).


The International Rice Research Institute and various other CGIAR international agricultural research centres encourage co-publication and translation of their materials, and design many of their publications to ease the adaptation into local languages. Contact Gene Hettel at IRRI for details.

Putting information on the Internet makes it available to anyone with a computer, a reasonably fast modem, the skills to use it, and of course electricity and a phone line. While internet-capable computers are spreading fast, they're rare in many countries, and rarer still in remote areas. Even if the technology is available, there's still the problem of giving people access, and training them how to use the equipment and search for information. And not least, many people can't speak English, the language of the Net. To be fair, that's a problem with many of the other approaches on this page, too.

Compact disks

DVDs and CD-ROMs can hold enormous amounts of text, in a searchable and editable format. Probably the best example of development-related material on CD-ROM is the Humanity CD-ROM: more than 1200 publications (books, reports, magazines) in a browser-driven format, on a whole range of development topics, available for around $10 in developing countries. The original publishers gave permission to scan in their publications, including the pictures. It's worth buying a computer just so you can use this one CD-ROM.


It may not be enough just to republish existing material. It often needs to be rewritten or adapted for local use, converted from academic jargon to easy-to-understand language, or generated from local experience. This is often best done through a writeshop that includes both experts (scientists, indigenous specialists) and members of the intended audience.

Mass media

Rather than do it all yourself, work with the mass media to get your message out. Get to know reporters and editors of radio, TV, newspapers and magazines. Give them briefing materials and press releases. Arrange visits for them to interesting sites, and make sure they have a 'news peg' to hang their story on (an award, a human-interest success story, or whatever). Introduce them to experts who can talk about the topic: an expert may be a scientist or a farmer, not just the boss. A newspaper story can reach 100,000s of people; a radio or TV story can reach millions.

]]> (Administrator) Development communication Sun, 19 Jan 2014 18:42:01 +0000
Knowledge systems

A tool for analysing knowledge systems

List all the actors or "stakeholders" in a particular knowledge system. There are a lot of these. Taking agriculture as an example, these might include (there are obviously lots of others that might be added):

  • Government policymakers: agriculture, education, etc.
  • Civil society: NGOs, community-based organisations, churches, etc.
  • Private sector: input suppliers, agri-processors, marketing, etc.
  • Scientific institutions: universities, research institutes, etc.
  • Extension agencies
  • Individuals: farmers, traders, processors, landlords, landless, urban consumers.

Draw a matrix and put each actor at the head of a column and also at the start of a row. For simplicity's sake, here's a matrix with just four of the actors:

To...  From...   
Government policymakers Agricultural research Agricultural extension  Farmers 
Government policymakers        
Agricultural research        
Agricultural extension        

You can use this matrix to analyse the levels of information flows from each group to the others. For example, information flows much more readily along the diagonal (from policymakers to other policymakers, from farmers to other farmers) than off the diagonal (from, say, farmers to research, or from research to extension).

The types of message are very different in each cell. Researchers talk science to each other; policymakers give directives and funding to extension; farmers exchange news about prices with each other.

The media also differ from cell to cell. Researchers communicate with each other by attending seminars and writing journal articles; they give technical briefings to policymakers; give training courses to extensionists; and conduct surveys or participatory appraisals to find out what farmers think. Farmers chat with each other over the fence or in the market, and attend group meetings with the extensionist (if there is one). A medium appropriate for one communication link (eg, email, video) may well be inappropriate for others.

There are power relationships implicit in the matrix. Communication from more powerful to less powerful groups (from policymakers to research to extension to farmers) is easier than the other way round.

The matrix can also be used to highlight problems and opportunities. Typically, communication problems lie off the diagonal: how can information about technology options be communicated to farmers? How can farmers inform policymakers of their needs and preferences? Some cells are pretty empty: in most countries, extension has very little interaction with private companies--despite the potential for such communication.

New (or changed) institutions or media may help to overcome problems. Rural telephones can overcome the isolation of remote villages, making it possible, for example, for livestock holders to choose the best time to sell their cattle. Email and internet can link intermediary institutions with information sources in faraway places. Privatised extension services may be more responsive to their clients than the top-down state-run ones.

Similar analyses can be done for other sectors: health, enterprises, education, or whatever.

]]> (Administrator) Development communication Sun, 19 Jan 2014 18:31:35 +0000
Media possibilities

There is a bewildering array of media to choose from. As technology develops, the range is increasing all the time. Some of the media listed below may not yet be available in your area, but may become so in the future.

It is possible to classify media in many different ways. What is important is not the classification, but the ways the various media can be used.

Scan the list below for ideas of media that you can use in your work. Add any media that you could use but which are not listed. Delete those unavailable or not appropriate for your needs.

The most important thing when choosing your media is to ask who is your audience? Think carefully about who you want to reach before choosing the media to use.

radio books camera
Mass media Print media  Small media 
  • Cinema
  • Newspapers and magazines
    • Advertisements
    • Editorials
    • Features
    • News
    • Photographs
    • Special interest stories
  • Music
    • Live performance
    • MP3
    • Compact disk
  • Radio and television
    • Advertisements
    • Comedy
    • Documentary
    • Drama
    • Educational
    • Forum
    • Jingles
    • Music
    • News
    • Short features
    • Soap opera
    • Talk shows
  • Books
    • Bibliographies
    • Catalogs
    • Case books
    • Directories
    • Fiction (novels, short stories)
    • Guidebooks
    • Manuals
    • Texbooks
  • Brochures
  • Business cards
  • Bulletins, pamphlets
  • Calendars
  • Cases, storytelling
  • Comics
  • Diaries
  • Handouts (printed, photocopied)
  • Libraries
  • Menus
  • Newsletters
  • Reports
  • Scholarly journals
  • Worksheets
  • Art, drawings
  • Badges, buttons, pins
  • Bag stuffers (flyers)
  • Certificates, plaques
  • Chalkboards
  • Coupons
  • Display boards
  • Displays, exhibits
  • Film strips
  • Flannelboards
  • Flashcards
  • Flipcharts
  • Instructions for use (medicines, pesticides)
  • Keychains, trinkets
  • Logos
  • Magnet boards
  • Maps
  • Noticeboards
  • Notices
  • Packaging
  • Photographs
  • Postage stamps, coins
  • Postcards
  • Posters
  • Printed bags
  • Stickers
  • T-shirts
  • Wall charts

group loudspeaker outdoor
Group media Narrowcast media Outdoor media
  • Competitions
  • Criers, heralds
  • Cross-visits
  • Debates
  • Demonstrations
  • Discussions
  • Drums, bells
  • Exhibitions
  • Field days
  • Games
  • Group interviews
  • Knowledge fairs
  • Lectures
  • Meetings
  • Museums
  • Participatory appraisal media
  • Presentations
  • Religious services
  • Schools
  • Sermons
  • Speeches
  • Training
  • Writeshops
  • Closed-circuit television
  • Loudspeakers
  • News conferences
  • News releases
  • Participatory video
  • CDs, DVDs
  • Banners
  • Billboards
  • Murals, wall paintings
  • Signs
  • Skywriting
  • Window signs

computer network performance realia
Computer media Performances Realia
  • Bulletin boards
  • CD-ROMs, DVDs
  • Cloud computing
  • Communities of practice
  • Computer-based presentations
  • Databases, spreadsheets
  • Digital libraries
  • Diskettes
  • Email
  • Email forums and groups
  • Internet phone
  • Local area networks, sgared directories
  • Multimedia
  • Social media
    • Blogs
    • Facebook
    • Social bookmarking
    • Twitter
    • Wikis
  • Websites
  • Concerts
  • Dance
  • Drama
  • Mime
  • Plays
  • Puppets
  • Role plays
  • Songs
  • Storytelling
  • Street theatre
  • Giveaways
  • Models
  • Objects
  • Specimens, samples

3speechbubbles mediated interpersonal  
Interpersonal media Mediated interpersonal media  
  • Apprenticeships, coaching
  • Consultations (eg with doctor, midwife)
  • Conversations
  • Counselling
  • Farm/home visits
  • Gossip
  • Individual consultations
  • Interviews
  • Fax
  • Letters
    • Form letters
    • Personal letters
  • Memos
  • Teleconferences
  • Telephone
    • Mobile
    • Fixed line
    • Smartphone
    • Apps
]]> (Administrator) Development communication Sun, 19 Jan 2014 18:01:39 +0000
Development communication


Why development communication?

Effective communication is vital if development efforts are to succeed. It helps spread new technologies, multiplying the impact of a project many times over. It ensures that a project takes into account the knowledge and wishes of local people — the project partners and clientele. Sharing ideas and experiences is important if the lessons from a project are not to be lost.


Without information on new technologies and market opportunities, the poor in developing countries are being left even further behind. Media can help bridge the gap: they range from simple pamphlets to video, from indigenous communication channels to the Internet. There are many ways to make information available to local people and project staff. These include traditional print and broadcast media, and computers and other new technologies.


Messages must be designed carefully to help people understand easily. Finding the information you need and deciding on an appropriate message can be very difficult. Skilful editing and clear illustrations can clarify complex ideas. Information materials can be produced in different ways, including through intensive writeshops. These approaches can reduce the time needed to produce information, as well as increase the value of the content.


The audience can include farmers, extensionists, scientists, policymakers... and a host of other groups. They are all actors in a knowledge system, each group interacting in various ways with other groups. Each group has its own unique characteristics and needs, so different media and messages may be required.

More information

  • Books you must have for your library on development communication, agricultural extension, science writing and editing, and more.
  • Courses (degree and short-term) at universities and training institutions
  • How to: Where to find online guidance on how to do development communication.
  • Jobs: Hints on how to get jobs and consultancy assignments in development communication and related fields; websites and free email newsletters with job vacancies.
  • Networks and organizations interested in development communication
  • Newsletters and journals devoted to development communication.

Note: Some of this information may be outdated. Please contact me with updated or additional information.

]]> (Administrator) Development communication Sun, 19 Jan 2014 17:06:49 +0000