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Books on development communication in English

List compiled by Paul Mundy, Anne W. van den Ban, Michelle Jeanguyot and Jacques Sultan.

This list is rather out of date - but it still contains some useful materials. The most valuable references are marked *.

Adult education

  • Hamilton, N. A. 1995. Learning to learn with farmers: A case study of an adult learning extension project conducted in Queensland, Australia 1990–1995. PhD thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands.
  • Knowles, M. The adult learner: A neglected species. Gulf House, Houston.
  • Merriam, S. B. and R. S. Cafarella. 1999. Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco. 2nd ed.
  • Pareek, U. 1982. Education and rural development in Asia. Oxford & IBH, New Delhi.
  • Rogers, A. 1992. Adults learning for development. Cassel, London.

Agricultural extension: Journals

  • Forests, Trees and People Newsletter. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Rural Development Studies, Box 7005, 7750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
  • Indian Journal of Extension Education. India.
  • *Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension. International Journal on Changes in Agricultural Knowledge and Action Systems, PO Box 194, 6700 AD, Wageningen, Netherlands.
  • Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education Satish Verma, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, PO Box 25100, Baton Rouge, LA 70894-5100, USA.
  • *Journal for Farming Systems Research-Extension. G. H. Axinn, Editor, 313 Natural Resources Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1222, USA.
  • Journal of Extension Education. India.
  • *Journal of Extension Systems. ISSN 0970-2989, O. S. Verma, Chief Editor, F-12 Hyderabad Estate, Napean Sea Road, Bombay 400 036, India.
  • Maharastra Journal of Extension Education. India.
  • *Rural Extension Bulletin. University of Reading, ISSN 096 6350.

Agricultural extension: Books

  • Adhikarya, R. 1994. Strategic extension campaign: A participatory-oriented method of agricultural extension: A case-study of FAO’s experiences. FAO, Rome, Italy. Procedures for planning extension programmes for situations in which experts know which changes are desirable for a large proportion of the farmers.
  • Agricultural extension. 1995. Swiss Development Cooperation, Agricultural Service, CH 3003 Bern. A clear analysis of the major decisions that have to be made in donor-supported development projects.
  • *Albrecht, Hartmut, Herbert Bergmann, Georg Diederich, Eberhard Grosser, Volker Hoffmann, Peter Keller, Gerhard Payr and Rolf Sülzer. 1989. Agricultural extension. 2 vols. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), Eschborn, Germany. ISBN 3 88085 364 9 and 3 88085 405 X. Volume 1 covers extension approaches and methods; volume 2 gives case studies and project descriptions.
  • Batten, T. R. 1967. The non-directive approach in group and community work, Oxford University Press, London. This book gives an excellent discussion of the basics of extension methodology based on experiences in Africa.
  • *Benor, D., and M. Baxter. 1984. Training and visit extension. World Bank, Washington, DC.
  • Birkhaeuser, D., R. E. Everson and G. Feder. 1991. The economic impact of agricultural extension. Economic Development and Cultural Change 39: 607-650.
  • *Blackburn, D. J. (ed.). 1994. Extension Handbook: Processes and Practices. Thompson Educational Publishing, Toronto.
  • *Blum, A. 1996. Teaching and learning in agriculture. FAO, Rome.
  • *Bolliger, Ernst, Peter Reinhard and Tonino Zellweger. 1994. Agricultural extension: Guidelines for extension workers in rural areas. SKAT, Swiss Centre for Development Cooperation in Technology and Management, St Gallen, Switzerland. ISBN 3 908001 20 X. Illustrated guide to extension approaches and methods.
  • Buford, J. A., A. G. Bedeian and J. R. Lindner. 1995. Management in extension. Ohio State University Extension, Columbus, Ohio. The only full text on extension management; gives limited attention to changing extension organizations.
  • *Christoplos, I. and U. Nitsch. 1996. Pluralism and the extension agent: Changing concepts and approaches in rural extension. SIDA, Stockholm.
  • CTA 1995 and 1996. Agricultural extension in Africa. (2 vols) Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), Wageningen, Netherlands.
  • Lionberger, H. F. and P. H. Gwin. 1991. Technology transfer: A textbook of successful research extension strategies used to develop agriculture, University of Missouri, Columbus.
  • Macklin, M. 1992. Agricultural extension in India, World Bank Technical Paper 190, Washington, DC.
  • Misra, D. C. 1990. Training and visit system of agricultural extension in India in action. Directorate of Extension, Ministry of Agriculture, New Delhi.
  • *Misra, D. C. 1990. Defining agricultural extension for 1990s. Directorate of Extension, Ministry of Agriculture, 1990.
  • Moris, J. 1991. Extension alternatives in tropical Africa, Occasional Paper 7, Agricultural Administration Unit, ODI, London.
  • Purcell, D. R. and J. R. Anderson. 1997. Agricultural research and extension: Achievements and problems in national systems. World Bank Operations Evaluation Study, Washington, DC.
  • Ravnborg, H. M. 1996. Agricultural research and the peasants: The Tanzanian agricultural knowledge and information system. Centre for Development Research, Gammel Kongevej 5, 1610 Copenhagen, Denmark. Discusses clearly what kind of support farmers need from research to improve their decision-making.
  • Ray, G. L. 1998. Extension communication and management. Naya Prokash, Calcutta. 3rd ed.
  • Rivera, W. M. and S. G. Schram (eds). 1987. Agricultural extension world wide: Issues, practices and emerging priorities. Croom Helm, London.
  • Rivera, William M. and Daniel J. Gustafson. 1991. Agricultural extension: Worldwide institutional evolution and forces for change. Elsevier, Amsterdam. ISBN 0 444 89239 7. Multi-author volume on extension systems in different countries and development projects.
  • Roberts, N.(ed.). 1989. Agricultural extension in Africa. World Bank, Washington, DC. Report of a symposium held in 1984.
  • Saito, K. A. and D. Spurling. 1992. Developing agricultural extension for women farmers, World Bank Discussion Paper 156, Washington, DC.
  • Samanta, R. K. (ed.). 1993. Extension strategy for agricultural development in 21st century. Mittal, New Delhi.
  • Samanta, R. K. and S. K. Arora. 1997. Management of agricultural extension in global perspectives. BRPC (India), New Delhi.
  • *Scarborough, Vanessa, Scott Killough, Debra A. Johnson and John Farrington (eds). 1997. Farmer-led extension: Concepts and practices. Intermediate Technology Publications, London. ISBN 1 85339 417 3. Covers various approaches to farmer-led extension, including farmer-to-farmer, farmer field schools, problem census/problem solving, and other approaches.
  • Seevers, B. et al. 1997. Education through cooperative extension. Delmar, Albany, NY. $36.
  • Shingi, P. M., S. Wadwalkar and G. Kaur. 1982. Management of agricultural extension: Training and visit system in Rajasthan. Centre for Management in Agriculture, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad.
  • *Swanson, B. E. (ed.). 1998. Improving agricultural extension: A reference manual, FAO, Rome. 16 chapters in 4 sections: evolution of egricultural extension, the framework of extension, improving extension programmes, and strengthening the structure and function of extension.
  • Swanson, B. E. (ed.). 1991. Report of the Global Consultation on Agricultural Extension. FAO, Rome.
  • Umali, D. L. and L. Schwartz. 1994. Public and private extension. World Bank Discussion Paper 236. Washington, DC.
  • Van de Fliert, E. 1993. Integrated pest management: Farmer field schools generate sustainable practices: A case study in Central Java evaluating IPM training. Wageningen Agricultural University Paper 93-3.
  • *Van den Ban, A. W., and H. S. Hawkins. 1996. Agricultural extension. 2nd ed. Blackwell Science, Oxford. ISBN 0 632 04053 X.
  • University textbook on extension. Chapters on extension and extension education, influencing human behaviour, ethics, extension theory, extension methods, planning extension programmes, evaluation and action research, and management of extension organizations. £17.95; CBS Publishers, New Delhi, Rs200. Different versions and translations of this book have been printed in 11 languages.
  • Venketasan, V. and J. Kampen. 1998. Evolution of agricultural services in Sub-Saharan Africa: Trends and prospects. World Bank Discussion Paper 390, Washington, DC.
  • Zijp, W. 1991. From extension to agricultural information management: Issues and recommendations from World Bank experience in the Middle East and North Africa. World Bank, Washington, DC.

Agricultural research and management

  • Antholt, C. H. 1994. Getting ready for the twenty-first century: Technical change and institutional modernization in agriculture, World Bank Technical Paper 217, Washington, DC.
  • Byerlee, D. et al. 1980. Planning technologies appropriate to farmers: Concepts and procedures, CIMMYT, Publication Division, Londres 40, Apdo, Postal 6-641, 06600 Mexico DF, Mexico.
  • CIMMYT. 1988. From agronomic data to farmer recommendations: An economics training manual. Revised ed. CIMMYT, Publication Division, Londres 40, Apdo, Postal 6-641, 06600 Mexico DF, Mexico.
  • Ewell, P. T. 1988. Organization and management of field activities in on-farm research: A review of experiences in nine countries, OFCOR Comparative Study 2, ISNAR, The Hague.
  • IRRI. 1991. Basic procedures for agro-economic research. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines. Revised ed. In particular, chapter 10, Economic analysis of new technologies, is important for extension.
  • Lipton, M. and R. Longhurst. 1989. New seeds and poor people. Unwin Hyman, London. Shows how research can contribute to a decrease in income differences.
  • *Moris, J. and J. Copestake. 1993. Qualitative enquiry for rural development: A review. Intermediate Technology Publications, London.
  • Mosher, A. T. 1966. Getting agriculture moving. Agricultural Development Council, New York. Gives very clearly the basic principles of agricultural development.
  • Nichols, P. 1991. Social survey methods: A field guide for development workers. Oxfam, Oxford.
  • *Norman, D. W. et al. 1995. The farming system approach to development and appropriate technology generation. FAO Farm Systems Management Series 10, Rome.
  • Ruttan, V. W. 1987. Agricultural research policy development. FAO Research and Technology Paper 2, Rome.
  • Veldhuizen, L. et al. (eds). 1997. Farmers’ research in practice: Lessons from the field. Intermediate Technology Publications, London.

Communication general

  • *De Vito, J. A. 1994. Human communication: The basic course. Harper Collins, New York.
  • Engel, J. F., R. D. Blackwell and P. W. Miniard. 1986. Consumer Behavior. CBS International Editions, New York. A good source of information on the commercial experience in influencing human behavior.
  • Hartley, P. 1993. Interpersonal communication. Routledge, London.
  • Lishman, J. 1994. Communication in social work. MacMillan, Houndsmill, UK. A clear discussion of communication skills, which are often also relevant for agricultural extension.

Communication how-to manuals

  • AMIC India. 1995. See, judge, act: A media kit for the community worker. Asian Mass Communication Research and Information Centre (AMIC), Madras. Covers posters, theatre, puppetry, group discussions, songs, newspapers, sound, slide shows, advertising and film. Available from AMIC, Jurong Point PO Box 360, Singapore 916412, pharmacy levitra
  • AMIC. 1995. Having fun with media. Asian Mass Communication Research and Information Centre (AMIC), Madras, India. Workbook for children, but also useful for adults. Covers pictures, posters, words, newspapers, theatre, sound, advertising and film. Available from AMIC, Jurong Point PO Box 360, Singapore 916412, sublingual viagra
  • Bunch, M. 1989. Speak with confidence: A practical guide to a better voice, Kogan Page, London.
  • Burke, Adam. 1999. Communications and development: A practical guide. Social Development Division, Department for International Development, London. ISBN 1 86192 004 0. Covers communication planning, drama (theatre and video), television and radio, information technology, networks and public relations.
  • *Calvert, Patricia (ed.). 1996. The communicator’s handbook: Tools techniques and technology. 3rd ed. Maupin House, Gainesville, Florida. ISBN 0 929895 16 9. Guide to how to use various types of media to promote rural development. Aimed primarily at extension workers in the USA, but useful also for developing countries.
  • De Vreede, M. Video for development. Africa Media Monograph Series 8. ACCE, Nairobi.
  • Deza, A. B. 1995. The poster handbook: An orientation to visual communication. Asian Social Institute, Manila. Guidelines on how to do posters.
  • GTZ. 1988. ZOPP: An introduction to the method. GTZ, Eschborn, Germany. This method of goal-oriented programme planning is prescribed in all German development projects, but also used in other extension projects.
  • *Harford, Nicola and Nicola Baird. 1997. How to make and use visual aids. Heinemann, London. ISBN 0 43592 317 X. Practical, low-cost suggestions for visual aids.
  • Heron, J. 1989. Helping the client: A creative practical guide, Sage, London.
  • IIRR. 1987. Communicating development. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite, Philippines. ISBN 0 942717 25 2. Illustrated guidelines on producing instructional materials, and sample materials on participation and health care.
  • Linney, Bob. 1995. Pictures, people and power: People-centred visual aids for development. Macmillan, London. ISBN 0 333 60044 4. Practical guidelines for non-artists to make their own visual aids.
  • *Pett, Dennis W. (ed.). Audio-visual communication handbook. World Neighbors, Oklahoma City. How-to guide, covers planning instructional materials, using media, presentation methods and materials, basic production techniques, and writing. Useful set of clip art in the back. No longer available from World Neighbors.
  • Tripathi, Bansh R. 1991. Roles of visuals in scientific presentations. Communication instruction series: Audiotutorial module 1. ILCA, Addis Ababa.
  • Tripathi, Bansh R. 1991. Speaking at scientific meetings: Organising the message. Communication instruction series: Audiotutorial module 2. ILCA, Addis Ababa.
  • Tripathi, Bansh R. Speaking at scientific meetings: Oral presentation techniques. Communication instruction series: Audiotutorial module 3. ILCA, Addis Ababa.
  • Zeitlyn, Jonathan. 1988. Effective publicity and design: A do-it-yourself guide. InterChange Books, London. ISBN 0 948309 03 2. Illustrated guide to design and graphics techniques.

Development communication

  • Agunga, Robert. Developing the Third World: A Communication Approach. Nova Social Science Books, Commack, NY.
  • Beal, G. M. et al. (eds). 1986. Knowledge generation, exchange and utilization. Westview, Boulder, CO.
  • Boeren, Ad and Kees Epskamp (eds). 1992. The empowerment of culture: Development communication and popular media. CESO paperback 17. Centre for the Study of Education in Developing Countries (CESO), The Hague. ISBN 90 6443 120 5. Covers education and communication, visual literacy, popular theatre, popular radio and cassettes, and media and development policies.
  • FAO. Communication for Development case studies. Series of case studies on development communication. Available from FAO, Communication for Development Branch, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.
  • *Fraser, Colin, and Sonia Restrepo-Estrada. 1998. Communicating for development: Human change and survival. I B Tauris, London. ISBN 1 86064 238 1. Shows how communication has been used to mobilize societies, facilitate democracy and help people gain new knowledge and skills.
  • Gonzalez, Hernando. 1991. Some myths of communication and development: Why information campaigns fail and how they can succeed. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite, Philippines. ISBN 0 942717 26 0. 29 myths and why they are wrong.
  • Hornik, Robert C. 1988. Development communication: Information, agriculture and nutrition in the Third World. Longman, White Plains, New York. ISBN 0 582 28520 8. Textbook with critical view of extension and development communication.
  • Melkote, Srinivas. 1991. Communication and development in the third world: Theory and practice. Sage, New Delhi. ISBN 81 7036 228 8 or 0 8039 9684 5. Covers the history of development communication from the 1950s onwards.
  • Nair, K. S. and S. A. White (eds). 1993. Perspectives on development communication. Sage, New Delhi.
  • Narula, U. and W. B. Pearce. 1986. Development as communication: A perspective on India. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale, IL.
  • Ostman, R. E. (ed.). 1989. Communication and Indian agriculture. Sage, New Delhi.
  • People in Communication and AMIC. 1995. Media education: A teaching manual. People in Communication, Manila; and Asian Mass Communication Research and Information Centre (AMIC), Singapore. ISBN 971 547 071 8. Undergraduate manual for teaching media. Covers an overview of media education; media awareness and literacy (radio, TV, newspapers, magazines, advertising, comics, pop music); media and reality; media and values; and telecommunication technologies. Available from AMIC, Jurong Point PO Box 360, Singapore 916412, viagra jokes
  • Rogers, E. M. and T. M. Steinfatt. 1999. Intercultural communication. Waveland Press, Prospect Heights, IL 60070.
  • Singhal, A. and E. M. Rogers. 1999. Entertainment-education: A communication strategy for social change. Mawhah, New Jersey/Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, London.
  • Sinha, A. K. 1985. Mass media and rural development. Concept, New Delhi.
  • *Windahl, S. and B. Signitzer. 1992. Using communication theory. Sage, London. An excellent overview of the way mass communication theory can be used by practitioners.
  • Woods, B. 1993. Communication, technology and the development of people. Routledge, London. Discusses potentials of information and communication technology.

Development general

  • Anonymous. 1997. Human development report. Oxford University Press, New York. Discusses experiences with and possibilities for poverty eradication.
  • Axinn, G. H. and N. W. Axinn. 1997. Collaboration in international development cooperation. Sage, New Delhi.
  • *Eade, Deborah and Suzanne Williams. 1995. The Oxfam Handbook of Development and Relief. 3 vols, 1,200 pp. ISBN 0 85598 274 8. 3-volume set with guidelines on managing NGOs and development projects.
  • IFPRI and NGS. 1995. A 2020 vision for food, agriculture and the environment. International Food Policy Research Institute and National Geographic Society, Washington, DC.
  • Watkins, K. 1995. The Oxfam poverty report. Oxfam, Oxford.
  • World Bank. 19999. World development report: Knowledge for development. Oxford University Press, New York.

Diffusion of innovations

  • Dasgupta, S. 1989. Diffusion of agricultural innovations in village India. Wiley Eastern, New Delhi.
  • Havelock, R. G. et al. 1969. Planning of innovation: A comparative study of the literature on dissemination and utilization of knowledge. Center for Research on the Utilization of Scientific Knowledge, Ann Arbor. One of the classics; an important basis for extension education.
  • Rogers, Everett M. 1983. Diffusion of innovations. 3rd ed. Free Press, New York. ISBN 0 02 926650 5. Classic on diffusion theory.
  • *Rogers, Everett M. 1995. Diffusion of innovations, 4th ed., Free Press, New York. A good overview of the research on the adoption and diffusion of innovations, which has had considerable impact on the thinking about extension. Older editions are quite different from this edition.


  • Mytton, Graham. 1999. Handbook on radio and television audience research. BBC World Service Training Trust, London; Unesco, Paris; and Unicef, New York. ISBN 92 806 3393 7. How to do audience research.
  • Bennett, C. F. 1976. Analysing impacts of extension programmes. USDA Extension Service, Washington, DC. One of the best publications on evaluation.
  • Bennett, C. F. 1990. Cooperative Extension roles and relationships for a new era: A new interdependence model and evaluation synthesis to foster work with other agencies and organizations. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA.
  • Casley, D. J. and K. Kumar. 1988. The collection, analysis and use of monitoring and evaluation data. John Hopkins, Baltimore, MD.
  • Hayami, Y. and V. W. Ruttan. 1987. Evaluator’s handbook. Sage, Newbury Park. Accompanied by a set of 8 how-to books.
  • *Patton, M. Q. 1997. Utilization-focused evaluation. 3rd ed. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
  • Raab, R. Y. et al. 1987. A trainer’s guide to evaluation: A guide to training activity improvement. FAO, Rome.


  • *DevArt: Artwork for development.
  • Linney, Bon, and Bruce Wilson. 1988. The copy book: Copyright-free illustrations for development. Intermediate Technology Publications, London. ISBN 0 946688 443. Collection of copyright-free artwork, plus a guide on how to use and adapt it.
  • Mundy, Paul and Hendi Bachtiar. 1992. Clip art for development: Copyright-free illustrations for development. Department of Journalism and Mass Communication, Iowa State University, Ames, IA. Over 100 pages of copyright-free, black-and-white line drawings for development. Focus on farming and Southeast Asia. Pictures are classified as “crops”, “livestock”, “people” and “other”.
  • *Röhr-Rouendaal, Petra. 1997. Where there is no artist: Development drawings and how to use them. Intermediate Technology Publications, London. ISBN 1 85339 391 6. Collection of copyright-free artwork, plus a guide on how to use and adapt it.
  • Wright, A. 1000 pictures for teachers to copy. Thomas Nelson & Sons. Simple pictures to copy and add to your visual aids. IT Publications: £18.95 + postage & packing.

Indigenous knowledge

  • *Indigenous knowledge & development monitor CIRAN, PO Box 29777, 2502 LT The Hague, Netherlands. Free in developing countries. A newsletter on research on indigenous knowledge on agriculture, health and rural development.
  • Blunt, P. and D. M. Warren (eds). 1996. Indigenous organizations and development. Intermediate Technology Publications, London.
  • *IIRR. 1996. Recording and using indigenous knowledge: A manual. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite, Philippines. ISBN 0 942717 70 8. Illustrated guide to identifying, documenting and using indigenous knowledge in development.
  • *Warren, D. M. 1991. Using indigenous knowledge in agricultural development. World Bank Discussion Paper 127, Washington, DC.
  • Warren, D. M., L. J. Slikkeveer, and D. Brokensha (eds). 1995. Indigenous knowledge systems: The cultural dimension of development. Intermediate Technology Publications, London.

Information management

  • *Barker, A. 1997. How to be a better decision maker. London, Kogan Page. An excellent discussion of the way managers can take decisions in a rational way taking into account that decisions are made and implemented by people, who are also influenced by emotions.
  • Chamala, S. and P. D. Mortiss. 1990. Working together for landcare: Group management skills and strategies. Australian Academic Process, Brisbane.
  • Kieffer, G. D. 1988. The strategy of meetings, Warner, New York.
  • Orna, Elizabeth with Graham Stevens. 1995. Managing information for research. Open University Press, Buckingham, UK.  ISBN 0 335 019397 6. Advice on how to manage information for a research project (such as when writing a thesis).
  • Pareek, U. and T. V. Rao. 1992. Designing and managing human resource systems. Oxford and IBH, New Delhi.
  • Powell, Mike. 1999. Information management for development organisations. Oxfam, Oxford. ISBN 0 85598 410 4. How to access information, manage it and communicate it in the most effective and equitable way.
  • Selener, Daniel, with Christopher Purdy and Gabriela Zapata. 1996. A participatory systematization workbook: Documenting, evaluating and learning from our development projects. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Quito. ISBN 9978 04 241 5. How to do “systematization”: a continuous process of participatory reflection on a project’s processes and results, undertaken by project staff and participants. Illustrated.
  • Stevens, M. 1996. How to be a better problem solver. Kogan Page, London.


  • Baird, Nicola. 1994. Setting up and running a school library. Heinemann, London. ISBN 0 43592 304 8. Useful guide also for other small libraries
  • Philipps, Eva. 1990. Documentation made easy. Vieweg, Braunschweig, Germany. ISBN 3 528 02054 7. Library manual for NGOs specializing in appropriate technology and rural development.


  • Nelson, John, and John Farrington. Information exchange networking for agricultural development: A review of concepts and practices. Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), Wageningen, Netherlands. ISBN 92 9081 1137. Description of networking in theory and practice.
  • Starkey, Paul. 1997. Networking for development. International Forum for Rural Transport and Development, London. ISBN 1 85339 430 0. Discusses the benefits and problems of networking and sets out guidelines for successful networking with examples from a range of development networks. Provides a detailed case study of animal traction networks in Africa.


  • Bertcher, H. J. 1994. Group participation: Techniques for leaders and members. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage. Good for training discussion leaders.
  • *Brukey, S. 1993. People first: A guide to self-reliant, participatory rural development, Zed Books, London. Excellent.
  • Chambers, Robert, Arnold Pacey and Lori Ann Thrupp. 1989. Farmer first: Farmer innovation and agricultural research. Intermediate Technology Publications, London. ISBN 1 85339 007 0 or 0 942850 20 3. Covers ways of promoting innovation by farmers, putting farmer needs in the forefront of agricultural research and extension, encouraging participation, and changing research and extension institutions so they serve farmers better.
  • *Chambers, Robert. 1983. Rural development: Putting the last first. Longman, Harlow, UK. ISBN 0 582 64443 7. Argues that outsiders rarely perceive rural poverty, and that they rarely appreciate the richness and diversity of local people’s indigenous knowledge.
  • Chambers, R. 1993. Challenging the professions: Frontiers for rural development, Intermediate Technology Publications, London.
  • Chambers, Robert. 1997. Whose reality counts?: Putting the last first. Intermediate Technology Publications, London. ISBN 1 85339 386 X. Shows that the poor are able to analyse their situation and express their needs—often at odds with the top-down views of professionals. Argues that personal, professional and institutional change is essential if the realities of the poor are to receive greater attention.
  • Engel, Paul G. H. and Monique L. Salomon. Facilitating innovation for development. Royal Tropical Institute, Netherlands. ISBN 90 6832 109 9. Describes RAAKS, the rapid (or relaxed) appraisal of agricultural knowledge systems. Box includes two books: “The social organization of innovation” and “Networking for innovation”, and a set of cards.
  • FAO. 1994. Participatory rapid appraisal of farmers’ agricultural knowledge and communication systems, FAO, Rome.
  • FAO and IIRR. 1995. Resource management for upland areas in Southeast Asia: An information kit. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite 4118, Philippines. 207 pp. ISBN 0-942717-65-1. Covers a broad range of social and biophysical technologies used in agroforestry in Southeast Asia
  • Grandstaff, T. B. and D. A. Messerschmidt. 1995. A manager’s guide to the use of rapid rural appraisal. Bangkok, FAO.
  • IIRR. 1998. Participatory methods in community-based coastal resource management. 3 vols. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite, Philippines. ISBN 0 942717 90 2. Illustrated guide to participatory techniques in coastal areas.
  • *PLA Notes. International Institute for Environment and Development, 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H ODD. ISSN 1357 938 X. PLA stands for “participatory learning and action”, formerly called rapid rural appraisal or participatory rural appraisal. This series has lots of ideas on how to do participatory appraisal in many different situations.
  • *Pretty, J. N. et al. 1995. A trainer’s guide for participatory learning and action. International Institute for Environment and Development, London.
  • Röling, N. G. and M. A. E. Wagemakers (eds). 1998. Facilitating sustainable agriculture: Participatory learning and adaptive management in times of environmental uncertainty. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Van Veldhuizen, L., A. Waters-Bayer and H. de Zeeuw. 1997. Developing technology with farmers: A trainer’s guide for participatory learning. Zed Books, London.
  • White, Shirley with K. Sadanandan Nair and Joseph Ascroft (eds). 1994. Participatory communication: Working for change and development. Sage, New Delhi. ISBN 81 7036 370 5 or 0 8039 9143 6. Multi-author volume covering perspectives on participation, participatory approaches and models, participatory decision-making and action, and participatory message-making.
  • World Bank. 1996. The World Bank participation sourcebook. World Bank, Washington, DC.

Public relations

  • Ali, Moi. 1995. The DIY guide to public relations for charities, voluntary organisation and community groups. Directory of Social Change, London. ISBN 1 873860 80 3. Covers internal PR, media relations, event management, publications, using designers and printers, campaigning, photography, exhibitions, videos, advertising and sponsorships, customer care and using PR consultants.
  • Benn, Alec. 1982. The 23 most common mistakes in public relations. Amacom, American Management Associations, New York. ISBN 971 08 0456 1. How to influence the public.
  • Greenberg, R. H., J. R. Williams, J. A. Yonkler, G. B. Saffitz and J. G. Ramon II. 1996. How to select and work with an advertising agency: Handbook for population and health communication programs. Population Communication Services, Center for Communication Programs, The Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland. How to deal with ad agencies when planning a social marketing campaign. Available from JHU School of Public Health, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012, USA, email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , internet
  • Phillipson, Ian. 1995. How to do your own PR: Getting the right publicity for your organisation. How To Books, Plymouth. ISBN 1 85703 145 8. How to work with the media and get your message out.


  • Châtry-Komarek,Marie. Tailor-made textbooks: A practical guide for the authors of textbooks for primary schools in developing countries. CODE Europe, Oxford. ISBN 0 9528651 0 6. Useful not only for primary school textbooks, but for all those planning to produce their own publications.
  • Montagnes, Ian. 1998. An introduction to publishing management. Working Group on Books and Learning Materials of the Association for the development of Education in Africa. ISBN 1 901830 06 3. Chapters cover strategic planning in publishing textbooks, developing manuscripts, production costs, budgeting, financial management and marketing.
  • Nyeko, Janet A. 1999. The ABC of book publishing: A training manual for NGOs in Africa. J A Nyeko Publishing and CTA, Kampala. ISBN 9970 510 01 2.
  • *Zeitlyn, Jonathan. 1988. Low cost printing for development: A printing handbook for Third World development and education. Intermediate Technology Publications, London. ISBN 1 85339 065 8. How to do printing without spending too much money.


  • CTA. 1995. Radio at the service of the rural world in ACP countries. Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), Wageningen, Netherlands.
  • de Fossard, Esta. 1996. How to write a radio serial drama for social development: A script writer’s manual. Population Communication Services, Center for Communication Programs, The Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland. How-to manual on radio scriptwriting. Available from JHU School of Public Health, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012, USA, email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , internet
  • de Fossard, Esta. 1998. How to design and produce radio serial drama for social development: A program manager’s guide. Population Communication Services, Center for Communication Programs, The Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland. How-to manual on radio drama. Available from JHU School of Public Health, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012, USA, email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , internet

Research–extension linkages

  • Asopa, V. N. and G. Beye. 1997. Management of agricultural research: A training manual. Module 8: Research–extension linkage. FAO, Rome. Introductory training module on research–extension linkages, to be covered in a single session in a training course on research management.
  • Eponou, Th. 1993. Partners in agricultural technology: Linking research and technology transfer to serve farmers, ISNAR, PO Box 93375, 2509 AJ The Hague, Netherlands.
  • FAO. 2000. Agricultural knowledge and information systems for rural development (AKIS/RD): Strategic vision and guiding principles. FAO, Rome, and World Bank, Washington, DC.
  • Kaimowitz, David (ed.). 1990. Making the link: Agricultural research and technology transfer in developing countries. Westview, Boulder, Colorado. ISBN 0 8133 7896 6. Multi-author volume on research-extension linkages.
  • *Merrill-Sands, D. and D. Kaimowitz. 1990. The technology triangle: Linking farmers, technology transfer agents and agricultural researchers, ISNAR, PO Box 93375, 2509 AJ The Hague, Netherlands.
  • Mundy, Paul. 1992. Information sources of agricultural extension specialists in Indonesia. PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI. Study of where Indonesian extension specialists get their information, and why. Shows that research ranks low (after farmers, other extension staff, mass media, etc.), and information flows are very slow. Suggests some improvements.
  • Seegers, S. and D. Kaimowitz. 1989. Relations between agricultural researchers and extension workers: The survey evidence. Linkages Discussion Paper 2, ISNAR, PO Box 93375, 2509 AJ The Hague, Netherlands.
  • Stoop, W. A. 1988. NARS linkages in technology generation and technology transfer. Working Paper 11, ISNAR, PO Box 93375, 2509 AJ The Hague, Netherlands.

Rural sociology and community organizing

  • Beers, G. et al. 1996. Farmers in small-scale and large-scale agriculture: Objectives, decision making and information requirements. Onderzoeksverslag 143, Agricultural Economics Research Institute, The Hague. Reports studies on the use of computers to support decision making.
  • *Cernea, M. (ed.). 1991. Putting people first: Sociological variables in rural development, Oxford University Press, New York, 2nd ed.
  • Caroll, T. F. 1992. Intermediary NGOs: The supporting link in grassroots development. West Garford, Kumarian Press.
  • Davies, A. 1997. Managing for change: How to run community development projects. Intermediate Technology Publications and VSO, London.
  • Diagne, D. and D. Pesche (eds). 1995. Peasant and rural organizations: Forces for the development of Sub-Saharan Africa. Ministère français de la coopération, Paris. Discuses how to stimulate the development of effective farmers organizations.
  • Eicher, C. K. 1989. Sustainable institutions for African agricultural development. Working Paper 19, ISNAR, The Hague.
  • Eicher, C. K., and J. M. Staatz (eds). 1990. Agricultural development in the Third World.  John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
  • Gubbels, Peter, and Catheryn Koss. 2000. From the roots up: Strengthening organizational capacity through guided self-assessment. World Neighbors, Oklahoma City, OK. 184 pp. ISBN 0-942716-10-8. Provides an overview of organizational capacity building and assessment and offers 49 participatory exercises to conduct with local NGO and community group members.  The guide also gives guidance on how to prepare for and carry out an organizational self-assessment and presents group processes for adapting and creating exercises, and synthesizing, analyzing and documentating results.  Available from World Neighbors for $20 plus postage, 4127 N.W. 122nd St., Oklahoma City, OK 73118, USA; tel. +1-405-752 9700, fax +1-405-752 9393, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .
  • Kaplan, A. 1996. The development practitioners’ handbook. Pluto Press, London, Chicago.
  • Leonard, D. K. 1977. Reaching the peasant farmer: Organization theory and practice in Kenya, University of Chicago Press. An excellent empirical study.
  • Pradervand, P. 1989. Listening to Africa: Developing Africa from the grassroots, Praeger, New York. Shows how farmer’s organizations can make major contributions to agricultural development.
  • Rogers, E. M. et al. 1988. Social change in rural societies: An introduction to rural sociology, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs. A leading textbook on rural sociology; emphasis on the USA.
  • Samanta, R. K. (ed.). 1995. Women in agriculture: Perspective, issues and experiences. M. D. Publications, New Delhi.

Social marketing, social mobilization

Social psychology

  • Atkinson, R. L. et al. 1990. Introduction to psychology. 10th ed., Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, Orlando. FL.
  • Beach, L. R. 1997. The psychology of decision making: People in organizations. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
  • Rothstein, P. R. 1990. Educational psychology. McGraw Hill’s College Review Books, New York. A rather simple overview of the most important theories of learning, instructional model, problem solving, etc.

Style guides

  • CBE. CBE style manual: A guide for authors, editors and publishers in the biological sciences. Council of Biology Editors, Bethesda, MD. Style manual for biological sciences.
  • French, Christopher, Eileen Alt Powell and Howard Angione (eds). 1984. The Associated Press stylebook and libel manual. Associated Press, New York. Stylebook used by AP journalists.
  • The Economist. 1996. The Economist style guide. Profile Books, London. ISBN 1 86197 038 2. Amusing style guide, used by The Economist news weekly.
  • *University of Chicago Press. 1982. The Chicago manual of style. 13th ed. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. ISBN 0 226 10390 0. Style guide for book publishing.


  • CEDPA. 1995. Training trainers for development: Conducting a workhop on participatory training techniques. CEDPA Training Manual Series Volume 1. Centre for Development and Population Activities, Washington, DC.
  • *Hope, Anne and Sally Timmel. 1984. Training for transformation: A handbook for community workers. Mambo Press, Harare. ISBN 0 86922 256 2. Three illustrated volumes on Freirean approaches to training and community development. Has been very influential.
  • IIRR. 1987. Training resource book: primary health care, family planning, women in development. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite, Philippines. Ideas for training in health-related topics.
  • Minnick, Dan R. 1989. A guide to creating self-learning materials. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines. How to create materials that people can use to teach themselves.
  • Narayan, D, and L. Srinivasan. Participatory development tool kit: Training materials for agencies and communities. World Bank, Washington, DC.
  • Pareek, U. and T. V. Rao. 1991. Developing motivation through experiencing: A trainers’ guide for behaviour simulation in motivation training, 2nd ed. Oxford & IBH, New Delhi.
  • *Pretty, Jules N., Irene Gujit, John Thompson and Ian Scoones. 1995. Participatory learning and action: A trainer’s guide. IIED participatory methodology series. International Institute for Environment and Development, London. ISBN 1 899825 00 2. Illustrated guidelines for trainers using PLA (also known as “participatory rural appraisal”).
  • Singh, R. P., A. Jhamtani and P. Singh (eds). 1996. Training management: A handbook. Jain Brothers, New Delhi.
  • Srinivasan, Lyra. 1990. Tools for community participation: A manual for training trainers in participatory techniques. ISBN 0 912917 20 2. Planning and implementing participatory workshops, and 39 participatory training activities. Illustrated.
  • Stewart, Susan. 1998. Learning together: The agricultural worker's participatory sourcebook. Heifer Project International, Little Roack, AR, and Christian Veterinary Mission, Seattle, WA.
  • Tyler, R. W. 1969. Basic principles of curriculum and instruction. 29th impression, University of Chicago, Chicago. A classic on programme development.
  • VSO, IIRR and PEPE. 1998. Creative training: A user’s guide. Voluntary Service Overseas, Quezon City; International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite; and Popular Education for People’s Empowerment, Quezon City, Philippines. ISBN 0 942717 89 9. 34 illustrated techniques for lively training.
  • Welbourn, Alice. 1995. Stepping stones: A training package on HIV/AIDS, communication and relationship skills. ActionAid, London. ISBN 1 872502 33 4. Manual for community-level training workshop on AIDS/HIV, used with an accompanying video.
  • Wentling, T. 1993. Planning for effective training: A guide to curriculum development. FAO, Rome.
  • Werner, David and Bill Bower. 1982. Helping health workers learn. Hesperian Foundation, Palo Alto, California. ISBN 0 942364 10 4. Now classic companion to Where there is no doctor. Methods, aids and ideas for village-level health instructors. Gives many practical ideas on extension in developing countries.

Writing and editing

  • Barker, Alan, and Firoze Manji. 2000. Writing for Change: An Interactive Guide to Effective Writing, Writing for Science, and Writing for Advocacy. CD-ROM. IDRC, Ottawa. ISBN 0-88936-932-1. Available from IDRC or (in Europe) from fahamu, 38 Western Road, Oxford OX1 4LG, UK.
  • Braidwood, Barbara, Richard Cropp, and Susan M. Boyce. 1999. Writing magazine and newspaper articles. Self-Counsel Press, North Vancouver, Canada. ISBN 1-55180-193-0.
  • Butcher, Judith. 1996. Copy-editing: The Cambridge handbook for editors, authors and publishers. 3rd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0 521 56648 7. How to copy-edit a book.
  • Day, Robert A. 1983. How to write and publish a scientific paper. ISI Press, Philadelphia. ISBN 0 89495 022 3. Step-by-step guide on how to write and edit a scientific paper. Pre-computer age, but still useful.
  • Gastel, Barbara. 1983. Presenting science to the public. Institute for Scientific Information, Philadelphia. ISBN 0 89495 029 0. How to work with the media.
  • Hawkins, Clifford, and Marco Sorgi. 1985. Research: How to plan, speak and write about it. Springer, Berlin. ISBN 3 540 13992 3. Pre-computer, but still useful.
  • Maslog, Crispin C. and Alice Colet-Villadolid (eds). 1992. Science and science writing. Philippine Press Institute. ISBN 971-8703 07 1. How to write science.
  • *Montagnes, Ian. 1991. Editing and publication: A training manual. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños; and International Development Research Centre, Ottawa. ISBN 971 22 0009 4. Training manual for science editors in developing countries.
  • *Montagnes, Ian. 1991. Editing and publication: A handbook for trainers. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños; and International Development Research Centre, Ottawa. ISBN 971 22 0009 6. Trainer’s handbook, companion to the book above.
  • O’Connor, Maeve. 1978. Editing scientific books and journals. Pitman Medical, Tunbridge Wells, UK. ISBN 0 272-79517 8. How-to guide. A classic, pre-computer age, but still useful. Out of print.
  • Reynolds, Linda and Doig Simmonds. 1982. Presentation of data in science. Martinus Nijhoff, London. ISBN 90 247 3054 6. Principles and practices for publications, slides, posters, overhead projections, slide-tapes and television. Pre-computer age, but still useful.
  • Stapleton, P., A. Youdeowei, J. Mukanyange and H. van Houten. 1995. Scientific writing for agricultural research scientists: A training reference manual. WARDA, Abidjan and CTA, Wageningen. ISSN 92 91130699.
  • Turabian, Kate L. A manual for writers of term papers, theses and dissertations. 4th ed. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. ISBN 0 226 81621. Style manual for students.

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